Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database - A curated public database designed to represent, store, and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying HIV drug resistance.


Select an author to see all studies by that author in the HIV Drug Resistance Database. The table contains the alphabetical list of all studies by first author. For each entry, the link on the left is to the Medline abstract; the link on right is to the study dataset.

First Author (yr)TitleCitationData
Abdellaziz (2016) Predominance of CRF06_cpx and Transmitted HIV Resistance in Algeria: Update 2013-2014. ARHR
Abdissa (2014) Drug resistance in HIV patients with virological failure or slow virological response to antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis
Abdoel Wahid (2016) HIV-1 genetic diversity and drug resistance mutations among treatment-naive adult patients in Suriname. ARHR
Abdool Karim (2010) Effectiveness and safety of tenofovir gel, an antiretroviral microbicide, for the prevention of HIV infection in women. Science
Abecasis (2007) Recombination confounds the early evolutionary history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: subtype G is a circulating recombinant form. J Virol
Abecasis (2011) Molecular epidemiological analysis of paired pol/env sequences from Portuguese HIV type 1 patients. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses
Abongwa (2019) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes in the northwest region, Cameroon. Virol J
Abram (2013) Impact of primary elvitegravir resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1 integrase on drug susceptibility and viral replication fitness. AAC
Abram (2016) Pre-existing HIV-1 integrase polymorphisms do not impact treatment response to elvitegravir-containing fixed-dose combination regimens in treatment-naive patients. HIV Drug Therapy 2016 Glasgow
Acharya (2014) Development, validation and clinical evaluation of a low cost in-house HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping assay for Indian patients. PLoS ONE
Acharya (2019) Near-Full-Length Genetic Characterization of a Novel HIV-1 Unique Recombinant with Similarities to A1, CRF01_AE, and CRFO2_AG Viruses in Yaound, Cameroon. ARHR
Acharya (2020) Variability in HIV-1 Integrase Gene and 3'-Polypurine Tract Sequences in Cameroon Clinical Isolates, and Implications for Integrase Inhibitors Efficacy. Int J Mol Sci
Adojaan (2005) Predominance of a rare type of HIV-1 in Estonia. JAIDS
Afonso (2012) HIV-1 genetic diversity and transmitted drug resistance mutations among patients from the North, Central and South regions of Angola. PLoS ONE
Aghokeng (2009) Evaluation of transmitted HIV drug resistance among recently-infected antenatal clinic attendees in four Central African countries. Antivir Ther
Aghokeng (2011) High failure rate of the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system for drug resistance testing in Cameroon, a country with broad HIV-1 genetic diversity J Clin Microbiol
Aghokeng (2011) Scale-up of antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa is accompanied by increasing HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in drug-naive patients. AIDS
Aghokeng (2013) Virological outcome and patterns of HIV-1 drug resistance in patients with 36 months' antiretroviral therapy experience in Cameroon. J Int AIDS Soc
Aghokeng (2014) Extraordinary heterogeneity of virological outcomes in patients receiving highly antiretroviral therapy and monitored with the World Health Organization public health approach in sub-saharan Africa and southeast Asia. Clin Infect Dis
Agwale (2006) Genotypic and phenotypic analyses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in antiretroviral drug-naive Nigerian patients. ARHR
Agyingi (2014) The evolution of HIV-1 group M genetic variability in Southern Cameroon is characterized by several emerging recombinant forms of CRF02_AG and viruses with drug resistance mutations. J Med Virol
Ahmed (2017) A case report of the emergence of the R263K mutation to dolutegravir after virological failure. IWHHVDR
Ait-Khaled (2002) Mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase during therapy with abacavir, lamivudine, zidovudine in HIV-1 infected adults with no prior antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther
Ajoge (2012) Drug resistance pattern of HIV type 1 isolates sampled in 2007 from therapy-naive pregnant women in north-central Nigeria. ARHR
Akrim (2012) HIV-1 subtype distribution in Morocco based on national sentinel surveillance data 2004-2005. AIDS Res Ther
Alaoui (2018) Prevalence of resistance to integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) among untreated HIV-1 infected patients in Morocco. BMC Res Notes
Alaoui (2019) HIV-1 Integrase Resistance among Highly Antiretroviral Experienced Patients from Morocco. Intervirology
Albert (1994) Analysis of a rape case by direct sequencing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pol and gag genes. J Virol
Albrecht (2000) Effect of lamivudine in HIV-infected persons with prior exposure to zidovudine/didanosine or zidovudine/zalcitabine. ARHR
Albrecht (2001) Nelfinavir, efavirenz, or both after the failure of nucleoside treatment of HIV infection.AIDS Clinical Trials Group 364 Study Team. N Engl J Med
Alcantara (2013) Increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 subtype C in inland central western Brazil. J Med Virol
Alencar (2013) HIV genotypes and primary drug resistance among HIV seropositive blood donors in Brazil: Role of infected blood donors as sentinel populations for molecular surveillance of HIV. JAIDS
Alessandri-Gradt (2017) HIV-1 non-group M phenotypic susceptibility to integrase strand transfer inhibitors. J Antimicrob Chemother
Alexiev (2015) Low HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance in Bulgaria against a background of high clade diversity. J Antimicrob Chemother
Alizon (1986) Genetic variability of the AIDS virus: nucleotide sequence analysis of two isolates from African patients. Cell
Alves (2019) Estimating HIV-1 Genetic Diversity in Brazil Through Next-Generation Sequencing. Front Microbiol
Amaral (2017) An overview of the molecular and epidemiological features of HIV-1 infection in two major cities of Bahia state, Brazil. Mem Ins Oswaldo Cruz
Ambike (2019) Partial pol sequences from drug naive HIV-2 infected individuals from Maharashtra, India. ARHR
Amogne (2016) Phylogenetic analysis of Ethiopian HIV-1 Subtype C near full-length genomes reveals high intrasubtype diversity and a strong geographical cluster. ARHR
An (2012) Reconstituting the epidemic history of HIV strain CRF01_AE among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Liaoning, northeastern China: Implications for the expanding epidemic among MSM in China J Virol
Anderson (2000) Testing the hypothesis of a recombinant origin of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype E. J Virol
Andersson (1999) Molecular characterization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and -2 in individuals from Guinea-Bissau with single or dual infections: predominance of a distinct HIV-1 subtype A/G recombinant in west Africa. Virology
Andreatta (2013) HIV-2 antiviral potency and selection of drug resistance mutations by the integrase strand transfer inhibitor elvitegravir and NRTIs emtricitabine and tenofovir in vitro. JAIDS
Andreatta (2018) Integrase Inhibitor Resistance Selections Initiated with Drug Resistant HIV-1. CROI
Andresen (2007) Characterization of near full-length genomes of HIV type 1 strains in Denmark: Basis for a universal therapeutic vaccine. ARHR
Andries (2004) TMC125, a novel next-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor active against nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1. AAC
Anstett (2015) Dolutegravir resistance mutation R263K cannot coexist in combination with many classical integrase inhibitor resistance substitutions. J Virol
Anstett (2015) Dolutegravir-selected HIV-1 containing the N155H and R263K resistance substitutions does not acquire additional compensatory mutations under drug pressure that lead to higher-level resistance and increased replicative capacity. J Virol
Anstett (2016) Polymorphic substitution E157Q in HIV-1 integrase increases R263K-mediated dolutegravir resistance and decreases DNA binding activity. J Antimicrob Chemother
Antoniadou (2013) Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 infection in northern Greece (2009-2010): evidence of a transmission cluster of HIV type 1 subtype A1 drug-resistant strains among men who have sex with men. ARHR
Apetrei (1998) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype F reverse transcriptase sequence and drug susceptibility. J Virol
Apetrei (2003) HIV type 1 diversity in northeastern Romania in 2000-2001 based on phylogenetic analysis of pol sequences from patients failing antiretroviral therapy. ARHR
Arajo (2019) Characterization of a large cluster of HIV-1 A1 infections detected in Portugal and connected to several Western European countries. Sci Rep
Arien (2005) Replicative fitness of historical and recent HIV-1 isolates suggests HIV-1 attenuation over time. AIDS
Ariffin (2014) Antiretroviral drug resistance and HIV-1 subtypes among treatment-naive prisoners in Kelantan, Malaysia. J Infect Dev Ctries
Arimide (2018) HIV-genetic diversity and drug resistance transmission clusters in Gondar, Northern Ethiopia, 2003-2013. PLoS ONE
Ariyoshi (2003) Patterns of point mutations associated with antiretroviral drug treatment failure in CRF01_AE (subtype E) infection differ from subtype B infection. JAIDS
Armenia (2012) Study of genotypic and phenotypic HIV-1 dynamics of integrase mutations during raltegravir treatment: A refined analysis by ultra-deep 454 pyrosequencing. J Infect Dis
Arora (2008) Drug resistance-associated genotypic alterations in the pol gene of HIV type 1 isolates in ART-naive individuals in North India. ARHR
Arroyo (2004) HIV type 1 subtypes among blood donors in the Mbeya region of southwest Tanzania. ARHR
Arroyo (2005) HIV-1 diversity and prevalence differ between urban and rural areas in the Mbeya region of Tanzania. AIDS
Arruda (2010) Intermediate prevalence of HIV type 1 primary antiretroviral resistance in Ceara State, Northeast Brazil. ARHR
Arruda (2010) Genetic diversity on the integrase region of the pol gene among HIV type 1-infected patients naive for integrase inhibitors in Sao Paulo City, Brazil. ARHR
Arruda (2018) Brazilian network for HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance (HIV-BresNet): a survey of treatment-naive individuals. J Int AIDS Soc
Atkinson (2000) Correlation between human immunodeficiency virus genotypic resistance and virologic response in patients receiving nelfinavir monotherapy or nelfinavir with lamivudine and zidovudine. J Infect Dis
Aulicino (2005) Sequence analysis of a south American HIV type 1 BC recombinant. ARHR
Aulicino (2005) Circulation of novel HIV type 1 A, B/C, and F subtypes in Argentina. ARHR
Aulicino (2011) Longitudinal analysis of HIV-1 BF1 recombinant strains in vertically infected children from Argentina reveals a decrease in CRF12_BF pol gene mosaic patterns and high diversity of BF unique recombinant forms. Infect Genet Evol
Aulicino (2012) Characterization of full-length HIV-1 CRF17_BF genomes and comparison to the prototype CRF12_BF strains Infect Genet Evol
Aulicino (2019) Pre-treatment drug resistance and HIV-1 subtypes in infants from Argentina with and without exposure to antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. J Antimicrob Chemother
Auwanit (2009) Detection of drug resistance-associated and background mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF01_AE protease and reverse transcriptase derived from drug treatment-naive patients residing in central Thailand. ARHR
Avi (2009) Absence of genotypic drug resistance and presence of several naturally occurring polymorphisms of human immunodeficiency virus-1 CRF06_cpx in treatment-naive patients in Estonia. J Med Virol
Avi (2010) Characterization of integrase region polymorphisms in HIV type 1 CRF06_cpx viruses in treatment-naive patients in Estonia. ARHR
Avi (2011) Emerging transmitted drug resistance in treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus-1 CRF06_cpx-infected patients in Estonia. Scand J Infect Dis
Avi (2013) Transmitted drug resistance is still low in newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF06_cpx-infected patients in Estonia in 2010. ARHR
Avi (2014) Full-length genome sequences of Estonian HIV-1 CRF06 and Eastern-European subtype A1 recombinant forms. BMC Infect Dis
Avi (2016) Prevalence of drug resistance mutations in HAART patients infected with HIV-1 CRF06_cpx in Estonia. J Med Virol
Avidor (2013) Transmission patterns of HIV-subtypes A/AE versus B: inferring risk-behavior trends and treatment-efficacy limitations from viral genotypic data obtained prior to and during antiretroviral therapy. PLoS ONE
Avila-Rios (2012) National prevalence and trends of HIV transmitted drug resistance in Mexico PLoS ONE
Ay (2017) Transmitted Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed, Treatment-Naive, HIV Type 1-Infected Patients in Hungary. CEFORM
Ay (2020) Transmitted drug resistance in newly diagnosed and treatment-na?ve HIV type 1-infected patients in Hungary. J Glob Antimicrob Resist
Ayitewala (2020) Comparison of HIV drug resistance profiles across HIV-1 subtypes A and D for patients receiving a tenofovir-based and zidovudine-based first line regimens in Uganda. AIDS Res Ther
Ayouba (2009) Low prevalence of HIV type 1 drug resistance mutations in untreated, recently infected patients from Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Senegal, Thailand, and Vietnam: The ANRS 12134 study. ARHR
Ayouba (2013) Evidence for continuing cross-species transmission of SIVsmm to humans: characterization of a new HIV-2 lineage in rural Cote d'Ivoire. AIDS
Azam (2013) Emergence of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1 subtype C protease gene in north India. Virus Genes
Azam (2014) Trends of drug-resistance-associated mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene of HIV type 1 isolates from North India. Arch Virol
Azijn (2010) TMC278, a next-generation NNRTI, active against wild-type and NNRTI-resistant HIV-1. AAC
Babic (2006) Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations and HIV-1 non-B subtypes in newly diagnosed drug-naive patients in Slovenia, 2000-2004. Virus Res
Bacheler (2000) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutations selected in patients failing efavirenz combination therapy. AAC
Bacheler (2001) Genotypic correlates of phenotypic resistance to efavirenz in virus isolates from patients failing nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy. J Virol
Badreddine (2007) Identification and characterization of HIV type 1 subtypes present in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: High level of genetic diversity found. ARHR
Baker (2007) HIV subtypes distribution and implication for antiretroviral treatment in a Ugandan population. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic)
Balakrishnan (2005) HIV type 1 genotypic variation in an antiretroviral treatment-naive population in southern India. ARHR
Balamane (2012) Panel of prototypical recombinant infectious molecular clones resistant to nevirapine, efavirenz, etravirine, and rilpivirine. AAC
Baldanti (2009) Early emergence of raltegravir resistance mutations in patients receiving HAART salvage regimens. J Med Virol
Baldrich-Rubio (2001) A complex human immunodeficiency virus type 1 A/G/J recombinant virus isolated from a seronegative patient with AIDS from Benin, West Africa. J Gen Virol
Balode (2010) Low prevalence of transmitted drug resistance among newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Latvia. J Med Virol
Balotta (2000) Prevalence of multiple dideoxynucleoside analogue resistance (MddNR) in a multicenter cohort of HIV-1 infected Italian patients with virologic failure. JAIDS
Balotta (2000) Prevalence of transmitted nucleoside analogue-resistant HIV-1 strains and pre-existing mutations in pol reverse transcriptase and protease region, outcome after treatment in recently infected individuals. Antivir Ther
Balotta (2001) Increasing prevalence of non-clade B HIV-1 strains heterosexuals, as monitored by the analysis of the RT and protease sequences. JAIDS
Bang (2008) Prevalence of primary antiretroviral resistance: Trends in Korea. ARHR
Banin (2019) Near full genome characterization of HIV-1 unique recombinant forms in Cameroon reveals dominant CRF02_AG and F2 recombination patterns. J Int AIDS Soc
Banke (2009) Positive selection pressure introduces secondary mutations at Gag cleavage sites in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 harboring major protease resistance mutations. J Virol
Bansode (2011) Drug resistance mutations in drug-naive HIV type 1 subtype C-infected individuals from rural Malawi. ARHR
Bao (2008) Molecular tracing of sexual HIV Type 1 transmission in the southwest border of China. ARHR
Bao (2014) Characteristics of HIV-1 natural drug resistance-associated mutations in former paid blood donors in Henan Province, China. PLoS ONE
Barabona (2019) Pre-treatment and acquired HIV drug resistance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania in the era of tenofovir and routine viral load monitoring. J Antimicrob Chemother
Barber (2012) Frequency and patterns of protease gene resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir as their first protease inhibitor. J Antimicrob Chemother
Barditch-Crovo (2001) Phase I/II trial of the pharmacokinetics, safety, and antiretroviral activity of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. AAC
Barik (2020) Identification and differential expression of serotransferrin and apolipoprotein A-I in the plasma of HIV-1 patients treated with first-line antiretroviral therapy. BMC Infect Dis
Barnett (1993) Distinguishing features of an infectious molecular clone of the highly divergent and noncytopathic human immunodeficiency virus type 2 UC1 strain. J Virol
Barreto (2006) Trends in antiretroviral drug resistance and clade distributions among HIV-1--infected blood donors in Sao Paulo, Brazil. JAIDS
Barrow (2013) HIV-1 drug resistance in treatment-naive chronically infected patients in Jamaica. Antivir Ther
Bartolo (2009) HIV-1 genetic diversity and transmitted drug resistance in health care settings in Maputo, Mozambique. JAIDS
Bartolo (2009) Antiretroviral drug resistance surveillance among treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals in Angola: evidence for low level of transmitted drug resistance. AAC
Bartolo (2011) Origin and epidemiological history of HIV-1 CRF14_BG. PLoS One
Bartolo (2014) HIV-1 diversity, transmission dynamics and primary drug resistance in Angola. PLoS ONE
Bartolo (2016) Rare HIV-1 subtype J genomes and a new H/U/CRF02_AG recombinant genome suggests an ancient origin of HIV-1 in Angola. ARHR
Baryshev (2013) HIV-1 genetic diversity in Russia: CRF63_02A1, a new HIV type 1 genetic variant spreading in Siberia. ARHR
Baudi (2017) Molecular epidemiology of co-infection with hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among adult patients in Harare, Zimbabwe. J Med Virol
Baxter (2000) A randomized study of antiretroviral management based on plasma genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing in patients failing therapy. CPCRA 046 study team for the Terry Beirn community programs for clinical research on AIDS. AIDS
Baxter (2006) Genotypic changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease associated with reduced susceptibility and virologic response to the protease inhibitor tipranavir. J Virol
Bbosa (2019) Phylogeography of HIV-1 suggests that Ugandan fishing communities are a sink for, not a source of, virus from general populations. Sci Rep
Becker-Pergola (2000) Analysis of HIV type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase in antiretroviral drug naive Ugandan adults. ARHR
Belec (2000) High levels of drug resistance human immunodeficiency virus variants in patients exhibiting increasing CD4 + t cell counts despite virologic failure of protease inhibitors containing antiretroviral combination therapy. J Infect Dis
Bello (2019) Phylogeographic Analyses Reveal the Early Expansion and Frequent Bidirectional Cross-Border Transmissions of Non-pandemic HIV-1 Subtype B Strains in Hispaniola. Front Microbiol
Bellocchi (2005) Subtype analysis and mutations to antiviral drugs in HIV-1-infected patients from Mozambique before initiation of antiretroviral therapy: Results from the DREAM programme. J Med Virol
Bellosillo (2003) G190A substitution is associated with delavirdine(DLV) hypersusceptibility in vitro and clinical response with DLV intensification. Antivir Ther
Bercoff (2010) Polymorphisms of HIV-2 integrase and selection of resistance to raltegravir. Retrovirology
Bermdez-Aza (2011) Antiretroviral drug resistance in a respondent-driven sample of HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Brazil. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
Bernardin (2005) Human immunodeficiency virus mutations during the first month of infection are preferentially found in known cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes. J Virol
Bertine (2015) High level of APOBEC3F/3G editing in HIV-2 DNA vif and pol sequences from antiretroviral-naive patients. AIDS
Bessong (2005) Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from a previously unexplored region of South Africa with a high HIV prevalence. ARHR
Bessong (2006) Resistance mutational analysis of HIV type 1 subtype C among rural South African drug-naive patients prior to large-scale availability of antiretrovirals. ARHR
Bessong (2013) Genetic analysis of HIV-1 integrase sequences from treatment naive individuals in northeastern South Africa. Int J Mol Sci
Betancor (2012) Clinical, virological and biochemical evidence supporting the association of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase polymorphism R284K and thymidine analogue resistance mutations M41L, L210W and T215Y in patients failing tenofovir/emtricitabine therapy. Retrovirology
Bhusal (2016) Prevalence of HIV-1 Subtypes and Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Nepal. Curr HIV Res
Bibollet-Ruche (2004) Complete genome analysis of one of the earliest SIVcpzPtt strains from Gabon (SIVcpzGAB2). ARHR
Bila (2013) Evolution of primary HIV drug resistance in a subtype C dominated epidemic in Mozambique. PLoS ONE
Billings (2016) The number and complexity of pure and recombinant HIV-1 strains observed within incident infections during the HIV and malaria cohort study conducted in Kericho, Kenya, from 2003 to 2006. PLoS ONE
Billings (2017) HIV-1 genetic diversity among incident infections in Mbeya, Tanzania. ARHR
Billings (2019) New Subtype B Containing HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant of sub-Saharan Africa Origin in Nigerian Men Who Have Sex With Men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
Billong (2013) Population-based monitoring of emerging HIV-1 drug resistance on antiretroviral therapy and associated factors in a sentinel site in Cameroon: low levels of resistance but poor programmatic performance. PLoS ONE
Blanco (2011) HIV-1 integrase inhibitor resistance and its clinical implications. J Infect Dis
Bodelle (2004) Identification and genomic sequence of an HIV type 1 group N isolate from Cameroon. ARHR
Boender (2015) Pretreatment HIV drug resistance increases regimen switches in sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Infect Dis
Boerma (2016) High levels of pre-treatment HIV drug resistance and treatment failure in Nigerian children. J Int AIDS Soc
Boillot (2016) Programmatic feasibility of dried blood spots for the virological follow-up of patients on antiretroviral treatment in Nord Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. JAIDS
Bonhoeffer (2004) Evidence for positive epistasis in HIV-1. Science
Bontell (2011) Transmitted drug resistance and phylogenetic analysis of HIV CRF01_AE in northern Vietnam. Infect Genet Evol
Bonura (2010) Transmission of drug-resistant HIV type 1 strains in HAART-naive patients: A 5-year retrospective study in Sicily, Italy. ARHR
Bouchard (2007) HIV type 1 drug resistance among naive patients from Venezuela. ARHR
Bouzeghoub (2006) High diversity of HIV type 1 in Algeria. ARHR
Bouzeghoub (2008) First observation of HIV type 1 drug resistance mutations in Algeria. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses
Bracho (2014) Emerging trends in CRF02_AG variants transmission among men who have sex with men in Spain. JAIDS
Bradley-Stewart (2017) HIV-1 integrase inhibitor resistance among treatment na J Clin Virol
Brado (2018) Analyses of HIV-1 integrase sequences prior to South African national HIV-treatment program and available of integrase inhibitors in Cape Town, South Africa. Sci Rep
Bradshaw (2007) Characterization of a novel drug-resistance pattern associated with the mutations K70G and M184V in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. AAC
Brandin (2003) Pol gene sequence variation in Swedish HIV-2 patients failing antiretroviral therapy. ARHR
Brehm (2011) Failure of initial therapy with two nucleosides and efavirenz is not associated with early emergence of mutations in the C-terminus of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. JAIDS
Brehm (2012) Frequent emergence of N348I in HIV-1 subtype C reverse transcriptase with failure of initial therapy reduces susceptibility to reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. Clin Infect Dis
Brennan (2000) Genetic variation in human immunodeficiency virus type 2: Identification of a unique variant from human plasma. ARHR
Brennan (2007) HIV-1 strains identified in Brazilian blood donors: Significant prevalence of B/F1 recombinants. ARHR
Brennan (2008) The prevalence of diverse HIV-1 strains was stable in Cameroonian blood donors from 1996 to 2004. JAIDS
Brennan (2009) Identification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 non-B subtypes and antiretroviral drug-resistant strains in United States blood donors. Transfusion
Brennan (2010) Expanded evaluation of blood donors in the United States for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 non-B subtypes and antiretroviral drug-resistant strains: 2005 through 2007. Transfusion
Brenner (2011) Subtype diversity associated with the development of HIV-1 resistance to integrase inhibitors. J Med Virol
Brenner (2016) Development of a G118R mutation in HIV-1 integrase following a switch to dolutegravir monotherapy leading to cross-resistance to integrase inhibitors. J Antimicrob Chemother
Brigido (2007) HIV type 1 subtype C and CB Pol recombinants prevail at the cities with the highest AIDS prevalence rate in Brazil. ARHR
Brindeiro (2002) Testing genotypic and phenotypic resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates of clade B and other clades from children failing antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Microbiol
Brindeiro (1999) Sequence diversity of the reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from untreated Brazilian individuals. AAC
Brindeiro (2003) Brazilian network for HIV drug resistance surveillance (HIV-BResNet): A survey of chronically infected individuals. AIDS
Brockman (2012) Uncommon pathways of immune escape attenuate HIV-1 integrase replication capacity. J Virol
Brooks (2013) Local phylogenetic analysis identifies distinct trends in transmitted HIV drug resistance: implications for public health interventions. BMC Infect Dis
Brooks (2016) Treatment failure and drug resistance in HIV-positive patients on tenofovir-based first-line antiretroviral therapy in western Kenya. J Int AIDS Soc
Brown (2009) Phylogenetic reconstruction of transmission events from individuals with acute HIV infection J Infect Dis
Brown (2000) Reduced susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from patients with primary HIV infection to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is associated with variation at novel amino acid sites. J Virol
Brown (2005) Biologic and genetic characterization of a panel of 60 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates, representing clades A, B, C, D, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG, for the development and assessment of candidate vaccines. J Virol
Brumme (2007) Evidence of differential HLA class I-mediated viral evolution in functional and accessory/regulatory genes of HIV-1. PLoS Pathog
Brumme (2009) HLA-associated immune escape pathways in HIV-1 subtype B gag, pol and nef proteins. PLoS Med
Brun (2001) Patterns of protease inhibitor cross resistance in viral isolates with reduced susceptibility to lopinavir. CROI 2001
Bruzzone (2015) Prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1-positive treatment-naive pregnant women in Pointe Noire, Republic of the Congo (Kento-Mwana project). ARHR
Budambula (2015) HIV-1 protease inhibitor drug resistance in Kenyan antiretroviral treatment-naive and -experienced injection drug users and non-drug users. AIDS Res Ther
Budayanti (2018) Molecular Antiretroviral Resistance Markers of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 of CRF01_AE Subtype in Bali, Indonesia. Curr HIV Res
Bunupuradah (2011) Etravirine and rilpivirine resistance in HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE-infected adults failing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens. Antivir Ther
Burda (2010) HIV-1 reverse transcriptase drug-resistance mutations in chronically infected individuals receiving or naive to HAART in Cameroon. J Med Virol
Burns (2002) Sequence variability of the integrase protein from a diverse collection of HIV type 1 isolates representing several subtypes. ARHR
Bussmann (2005) HIV-1 subtype C drug-resistance background among ARV-naive adults in Botswana. Antivir Chem Chemother
Bussmann (2011) Prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Botswana: Lessons learned from the HIVDR-threshold survey conducted among women presenting for routine antenatal care as part of the 2007 national sentinel survey. ARHR
Buzon (2008) Raltegravir susceptibility and fitness progression of HIV type-1 integrase in patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther
Byrnes (1993) Comprehensive mutant enzyme and viral variant assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase resistance to nonnucleoside inhibitors. AAC
Cabana (1999) Emergence and genetic evolution of HIV-1 variants with mutations conferring resistance to multiple reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors. J Med Virol
Canducci (2009) Dynamic patterns of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir-based salvage therapies. AIDS
Canducci (2011) Cross-resistance profile of the novel integrase inhibitor Dolutegravir (S/GSK1349572) using clonal viral variants selected in patients failing raltegravir. J Infect Dis
Capel (2012) Evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease: effects on viral replication capacity and protease robustness. J Gen Virol
Capel (2013) Significant changes in integrase-associated HIV-1 replication capacity between early and late isolates. Virology
Caplinskas (2013) Distinct HIV type 1 strains in different risk groups and the absence of new infections by drug-resistant strains in Lithuania. ARHR
Capoferri (2020) Recombination Analysis of Near Full-Length HIV-1 Sequences and the Identification of a Potential New Circulating Recombinant Form from Rakai, Uganda. ARHR
Cardoso (2009) HIV-1 pol phylogenetic diversity and antiretroviral resistance mutations in treatment naive patients from central west Brazil. J Clin Virol
Cardoso (2009) High level of multidrug resistance mutations in HIV type 1 pol gene and resistance-associated mutations to enfuvirtide (T-20) among antiretroviral-experienced patients from central Brazil. ARHR
Cardoso (2011) Molecular characteristics of HIV type 1 infection among prisoners from Central Western Brazil. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses
Cardoso (2018) Two cases of dolutegravir failure with R236K. EU HIV&HEP WS
Caride (2001) Genotypic and phenotypic evidence of different drug-resistance mutation patterns between B and non-B subtype isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 found in Brazilian patients failing HAART. Virus Genes
Caron (2008) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroprevalence and antiretroviral drug resistance-associated mutations in miners in Gabon, central Africa. ARHR
Caron (2012) Prevalence, genetic diversity and antiretroviral drugs resistance-associated mutations among untreated HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa. BMC Infect Dis
Carr (1996) Full-length sequence and mosaic structure of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate from Thailand. J Virol
Carr (1998) Full genome sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes G and A/G intersubtype recombinants. Virology
Carr (1999) Direct Genbank submission: HIV-1 isolates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and from Gabon. Direct Genbank Submission
Carr (1999) Characterization of subtype A HIV-1 from Africa by full genome sequencing. AIDS
Carr (2001) The AG recombinant IbNG and novel strains of group M HIV-1 are common in Cameroon. Virology
Carr (2001) Diverse BF recombinants have spread widely since the introduction of HIV-1 into South America. AIDS
Carr (2005) HIV subtype and drug resistance patterns among drug-naive infected persons in Jos, Nigeria. Direct Genbank Submission
Carr (2005) Outbreak of west African recombinant of HIV-1 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. JAIDS
Carr (2006) High genetic complexity of HIV-1 in low-prevalence, rural regions of Cameroon. Direct Genbank Submission
Carr (2010) HIV-1 recombinants with multiple parental strains in low-prevalence, remote regions of Cameroon: Evolutionary relics?. Retrovirology
Carrillo (1998) In vitro selection and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants with increased resistance to ABT-378. J Virol
Carrion (2003) Circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG in south America. ARHR
Carrion (2004) Documentation of subtype C HIV Type 1 strains in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. ARHR
Carvalho (2015) Analysis of a local HIV-1 epidemic in portugal highlights established transmission of non-B and non-G subtypes. J Clin Microbiol
Carvalho (2011) Moderate prevalence of transmitted drug resistance and interiorization of HIV type 1 subtype C in the inland north state of Tocantins, Brazil. ARHR
Casado (2003) Near full-length genome characterization of an HIV type 1 CRF05_DF virus from Spain. ARHR
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