<!--#if expr="$title" --> <!--#echo var="title" --> <!--#else --> HIV Drug Resistance Database <!--#endif -->
Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database - A curated public database designed to represent, store, and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying HIV drug resistance.

New Submissions

2018
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Andreatta (2018) Integrase Inhibitor Resistance Selections Initiated with Drug Resistant HIV-1. CROI IN HIV1 group M: 34
Inzaule (2018) Primary resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors in patients infected with diverse HIV-1 subtypes in sub-Saharan Africa. J Antimicrob Chemother IN HIV1 group M: 425
da Costa (2016) High HIV-1 Genetic Diversity in Patients from Northern Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 305
RT HIV1 group M: 305
Steegen (2016) Prevalence of Antiretroviral Drug Resistance in Patients Who Are Not Responding to Protease Inhibitor-Based Treatment: Results From the First National Survey in South Africa. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 350
RT HIV1 group M: 350
Vasylyeva (2018) Molecular epidemiology reveals the role of war in the spread of HIV in Ukraine. PNAS PR HIV1 group M: 427
RT HIV1 group M: 427
Chen (2016) Fast Dissemination of New HIV-1 CRF02/A1 Recombinants in Pakistan. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 34
RT HIV1 group M: 34
IN HIV1 group M: 36
Perez-Losada (2017) Characterization of HIV diversity, phylodynamics and drug resistance in Washington, DC. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 1660
RT HIV1 group M: 1660
IN HIV1 group M: 223
Villabona-Arenas (2015) HIV-1 group O infection in Cameroon from 2006 to 2013: Prevalence, genetic diversity, evolution and public health challenges. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group O: 36
RT HIV1 group O: 38
IN HIV1 group O: 36
Saravanan (2013) Darunavir is a good third-line antiretroviral agent for HIV type 1-infected patients failing second-line protease inhibitor-based regimens in South India. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 87
RT HIV1 group M: 87
Vubil (2016) Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance of HIV-1 Subtypes in Blood Donors Candidates in Northern Mozambique. J AIDS Clin Res PR HIV1 group M: 95
RT HIV1 group M: 95
Ay (2017) Transmitted Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed, Treatment-Naive, HIV Type 1-Infected Patients in Hungary. CEFORM PR HIV1 group M: 82
RT HIV1 group M: 82
Ceccherini-Silberstein (2004) Identification of the minimal conserved structure of HIV-1 protease in the presence and absence of drug pressure. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 478
RT HIV1 group M: 479
Kazennova (2017) Genetic Variants of HIV Type 1 in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Russia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 155
RT HIV1 group M: 155
IN HIV1 group M: 5
Kityo (2017) Pretreatment HIV drug resistance results in virological failure and accumulation of additional resistance mutations in Ugandan children. J Antimicrob Chemother PR HIV1 group M: 360
RT HIV1 group M: 360
Kityo (2016) HIV Drug Resistance Among Children Initiating First-Line Antiretroviral Treatment in Uganda. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 330
RT HIV1 group M: 330
Hachiya (2017) Trends in transmitted drug-resistant HIV-1 and demographic characteristics of newly diagnosed patients: Nationwide surveillance from 2013 to 2015 in Japan. Unpublished PR HIV1 group M: 2113
RT HIV1 group M: 2134
IN HIV1 group M: 1553
Sachithanandham (2016) Effect of HIV-1 Subtype C integrase mutations implied using molecular modeling and docking data. Bioinformation IN HIV1 group M: 102
Patio-Galindo (2017) The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain): analysis of transmission clusters. Sci Rep PR HIV1 group M: 1804
RT HIV1 group M: 1804
Castley (2017) A national study of the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Australia 2005-2012. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 4871
RT HIV1 group M: 4870
Verhofstede (2017) Decision tree for accurate infection timing in individuals newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection. BMC Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 539
RT HIV1 group M: 539
Rouet (2017) Massive Iatrogenic Outbreak of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Rural Cambodia, 2014-2015. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 216
RT HIV1 group M: 216
Matsuda (2017) High Prevalence of Drug Resistance Mutations Among Patients Failing First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy and Predictors of Virological Response 24 Weeks After Switch to Second-Line Therapy in So Paulo State, Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 319
RT HIV1 group M: 320
Chaplin (2017) Distinct Pattern of Thymidine Analogue Mutations with K65R in Patients Failing Tenofovir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 382
RT HIV1 group M: 382
Tee (2017) Genome Sequence of a Novel HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF77_cpx) Identified among Blood Donors in Malaysia. Genome Announc PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Reis (2017) Characterization of HIV-1 CRF90_BF1 and putative novel CRFs_BF1 in Central West, North and Northeast Brazilian regions. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 11
RT HIV1 group M: 11
IN HIV1 group M: 10
Konou (2015) Alarming rates of virological failure and drug resistance in patients on long-term antiretroviral treatment in routine HIV clinics in Togo. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 16
RT HIV1 group M: 172
El Moussi (2017) Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 in Tunisia. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses PR HIV1 group M: 196
RT HIV1 group M: 196
Dow (2017) HIV Resistance and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Regimen in HIV-Infected Infants in Northern Tanzania. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 67
RT HIV1 group M: 67
Alessandri-Gradt (2017) HIV-1 non-group M phenotypic susceptibility to integrase strand transfer inhibitors. J Antimicrob Chemother IN HIV1 group N: 2
IN HIV1 group O: 36
IN HIV1 group P: 1
Paraschiv (2017) Epidemic dispersion of HIV and HCV in a population of co-infected Romanian injecting drug users. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 117
RT HIV1 group M: 117
Lebedev (2017) Analysis of the pol gene variability of IDU-A HIV-1 variant in the course of HIV infection epidemic in Perm Region of Russia. Unpublished PR HIV1 group M: 75
RT HIV1 group M: 69
Ngo-Malabo (2017) HIV Drug Resistance Testing in a Resource Limited Setting with High Viral Diversity: The First Twenty Eight Months Experience. Curr HIV Res PR HIV1 group M: 166
PR HIV1 group O: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 165
RT HIV1 group O: 1
Chen (2017) Analysis of HIV Integrase Resistance in Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses IN HIV1 group M: 165
Ren (2017) Epidemiology reveals Zhaotong City as the hub of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission from the Yunnan province to other regions in China. J Gen Virol PR HIV1 group M: 88
RT HIV1 group M: 88
Nii-Trebi (2017) Dynamic HIV-1 genetic recombination and genotypic drug resistance among treatment-experienced adults in northern Ghana. J Med Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 21
RT HIV1 group M: 24
Dennis (2017) Rising prevalence of non-B HIV-1 subtypes in North Carolina and evidence for local onward transmission. Virus Evol PR HIV1 group M: 425
RT HIV1 group M: 425
Svard (2017) Drug resistance testing through remote genotyping and predicted treatment options in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected Tanzanian subjects failing first or second line antiretroviral therapy. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 82
RT HIV1 group M: 82
van Zyl (2017) Moderate levels of pre-therapy drug resistance (PDR) in a generalised epidemic: time for better first-line ART? AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 59
RT HIV1 group M: 59
Bradley-Stewart (2017) HIV-1 integrase inhibitor resistance among treatment nave patients in the West of Scotland. J Clin Virol IN HIV1 group M: 91
Nanfack (2017) Multimethod Longitudinal HIV Drug Resistance Analysis in Antiretroviral-Therapy-Naive Patients. J Clin Microbiol RT HIV1 group M: 61
Neogi (2017) Recent increased identification and transmission of HIV-1 unique recombinant forms in Sweden. Sci Rep PR HIV1 group M: 83
RT HIV1 group M: 83
IN HIV1 group M: 83
Karade (2017) Antiretroviral resistance following immunological monitoring in a resource-limited setting of western India: A cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 75
RT HIV1 group M: 75
Boerma (2016) High levels of pre-treatment HIV drug resistance and treatment failure in Nigerian children. J Int AIDS Soc PR HIV1 group M: 90
RT HIV1 group M: 90
Vrancken (2017) The multi-faceted dynamics of HIV-1 transmission in Northern Alberta: A combined analysis of virus genetic and public health data. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 1055
RT HIV1 group M: 1055
Hao (2017) Low Rates of Transmitted Drug Resistances Among Treatment-Naive HIV-1-infected Students in Beijing, China. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses PR HIV1 group M: 237
RT HIV1 group M: 237
Ghafari (2017) Prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance in recently infected, treatment-nave persons in the Southwest of Iran, 2014-2015. Arch Virol PR HIV1 group M: 52
RT HIV1 group M: 52
Lu (2017) Regional Transmission Pattern of HIV-1 Non-CRF01_AE Strains Circulating in Hebei Province, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 317
RT HIV1 group M: 317
Vaz (2012) Surveillance of HIV drug resistance in children receiving antiretroviral therapy: a pilot study of the World Health Organization's generic protocol in Maputo, Mozambique. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 112
RT HIV1 group M: 112
Chehadeh (2017) Resistance-Associated Mutations and Polymorphisms among Integrase Inhibitor-Nave HIV-1 Patients in Kuwait. Intervirology IN HIV1 group M: 53
Do (2017) An Alarmingly High Proportion of HIV-1 Isolates Carrying Mutations Corresponding to Resistance to Antiretroviral Drugs among HIV-Positive High-Risk Groups in Central Vietnam: a Substudy of the National Sentinel Survey. Jpn J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 40
RT HIV1 group M: 40
Meixenberger (2017) Molecular evolution of HIV-1 integrase during the 20years prior to the first approval of integrase inhibitors. Virol J IN HIV1 group M: 337

 

2017
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Charpentier (2010) Resistance analyses in highly experienced patients failing raltegravir, etravirine and darunavir/ritonavir regimen. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 12
RT HIV1 group M: 12
IN HIV1 group M: 9
Banke (2009) Positive selection pressure introduces secondary mutations at Gag cleavage sites in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 harboring major protease resistance mutations. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 364
Lopez (2016) The genetic diversity and evolution of HIV-1 subtype B epidemic in Puerto Rico. Unpublished PR HIV1 group M: 1069
RT HIV1 group M: 1071
Misbah (2013) Evaluation of mutation profile of protease gene in confirmed HIV-1 infected patients Presenting with antiretroviral drug resistance. Unpublished PR HIV1 group M: 90
Kumar (2014) Prevalence of drug resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected treatment-naive children in Pune, India. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses PR HIV1 group M: 27
RT HIV1 group M: 27
Acharya (2014) Development, validation and clinical evaluation of a low cost in-house HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping assay for Indian patients. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 206
RT HIV1 group M: 206
Herring (2001) Natural variation in HIV-1 integrase. Unpublished IN HIV1 group M: 16
Gafarova (2010) Investigation of genetic polymorphism of the integrase gene in the HIV-1 subtype A populations circulating in the Russian Federation. Vopr Virusol IN HIV1 group M: 43
Crawford (2014) Occurrence of etravirine/rilpivirine-specific resistance mutations selected by efavirenz and nevirapine in Kenyan patients with non-B HIV-1 subtypes failing antiretroviral therapy. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 14
RT HIV1 group M: 14
Feng (2016) Diverse intersubtype recombinants and high frequency of drug-resistance mutations of HIV-1 among newly diagnosed and antiretroviral treatment naive HIV-infected individuals in Baoshan, a western prefecture of Yunnan, China. Unpublished PR HIV1 group M: 103
RT HIV1 group M: 103
Chantratita (2005) Prevalence of mutations related to HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance in Thailand, 2003. Unpublished PR HIV1 group M: 410
RT HIV1 group M: 559
Chantratita (2002) Prevalence of HIV-1 polymerase gene mutations in pre-treated patients in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health PR HIV1 group M: 47
RT HIV1 group M: 47
Fernandez-Garcia (2016) Identification of an HIV-1 BG Intersubtype Recombinant Form (CRF73_BG), Partially Related to CRF14_BG, Which Is Circulating in Portugal and Spain. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Jenabian (2015) Pitfalls of antiretroviral drug resistance genotyping of HIV-1 Group M and Group N from Cameroon by sequenced-based assays. Niger Med J PR HIV1 group M: 42
PR HIV1 group N: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 42
RT HIV1 group N: 1
Ariffin (2014) Antiretroviral drug resistance and HIV-1 subtypes among treatment-naive prisoners in Kelantan, Malaysia. J Infect Dev Ctries PR HIV1 group M: 26
RT HIV1 group M: 26
Reid (2005) Natural resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 to zidovudine. Virology RT HIV2: 4
Betancor (2012) Clinical, virological and biochemical evidence supporting the association of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase polymorphism R284K and thymidine analogue resistance mutations M41L, L210W and T215Y in patients failing tenofovir/emtricitabine therapy. Retrovirology PR HIV1 group M: 216
RT HIV1 group M: 216
Bouzeghoub (2008) First observation of HIV type 1 drug resistance mutations in Algeria. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses PR HIV1 group M: 197
RT HIV1 group M: 172
Bertine (2015) High level of APOBEC3F/3G editing in HIV-2 DNA vif and pol sequences from antiretroviral-naive patients. AIDS PR HIV2: 38
RT HIV2: 43
Zain (2015) Drug resistance mutations among virological failure HIV-1 infected patients in Malaysia. Unpublished PR HIV1 group M: 100
RT HIV1 group M: 100
Melo (2012) Characterization of primary isolates of HIV type 1 CRF28_BF, CRF29_BF, and unique BF recombinants circulating in So Paulo, Brazil. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses PR HIV1 group M: 10
RT HIV1 group M: 10
IN HIV1 group M: 10
Ramkissoon (2015) Analysis of reverse transcriptase and protease genes of HIV for antiretroviral drug resistance in treatment-exposed Jamaican pediatrics. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses PR HIV1 group M: 40
RT HIV1 group M: 40
Raugi (2013) Complex patterns of protease inhibitor resistance among antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-2 patients from Senegal: implications for second-line therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother PR HIV2: 154
RT HIV2: 154
Gottlieb (2011) HIV-2 integrase variation in integrase inhibitor-naïve adults in Senegal, West Africa. PLoS ONE IN HIV2: 77
Gottlieb (2009) Emergence of multiclass drug-resistance in HIV-2 in antiretroviral-treated individuals in Senegal: implications for HIV-2 treatment in resouce-limited West Africa. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV2: 67
RT HIV2: 67
Delaugerre (2011) HIV-1 group N: travelling beyond Cameroon. Lancet PR HIV1 group N: 1
RT HIV1 group N: 1
IN HIV1 group N: 1
Castley (2016) Longitudinal Trends in Western Australian HIV-1 Sequence Diversity and Viral Transmission Networks and Their Influence on Clinical Parameters: 2000-2014. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1022
RT HIV1 group M: 1022
Liegeois (2013) HIV type-1 group O infection in Gabon: low prevalence rate but circulation of genetically diverse and drug-resistant HIV type-1 group O strains. ARHR PR HIV1 group O: 2
RT HIV1 group O: 2
IN HIV1 group O: 2
Lima (2016) HIV-1 infection and pregnancy in young women in Brazil: socioeconomic and drug resistance profiles in a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open PR HIV1 group M: 87
RT HIV1 group M: 87
Lavu (2017) High levels of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a study in Papua New Guinea. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 122
RT HIV1 group M: 122
Oliveira (2012) Genetic diversity and drug resistance profiles in HIV type 1- and HIV type 2-infected patients from Cape Verde Islands. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 26
RT HIV1 group M: 27
PR HIV2: 14
Jallow (2009) Virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and in patients dually infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in the Gambia and emergence of drug-resistant variants. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
PR HIV2: 19
RT HIV2: 21
Paolucci (2014) Phylogenetic analysis of HIV type 1 CRF02_AG in multiple genes in Italian and African patients living in Italy. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 61
Lu (2016) Recombinant patterns of nine novel HIV-1 recombinant strains identified in Hebei province, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 9
RT HIV1 group M: 9
Hattori (2016) Characteristics of transmitted drug-resistant HIV-1 in recently infected treatment-naive patients in Japan. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 3113
RT HIV1 group M: 3090
Azam (2014) Trends of drug-resistance-associated mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene of HIV type 1 isolates from North India. Arch Virol RT HIV1 group M: 103
Chen (2014) Evolving molecular epidemiological profile of human immunodeficiency virus 1 in the southwest border of China. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 284
RT HIV1 group M: 285
Yao (2015) Trends of subtype variation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Zhejiang Province, China. Virus Genes PR HIV1 group M: 229
RT HIV1 group M: 229
Karade (2016) Limited HIV pretreatment drug resistance among adults attending free antiretroviral therapy clinic of Pune, India. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 52
RT HIV1 group M: 52
Kotaki (2015) HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral therapy-naive individuals in Surabaya, Indonesia AIDS Res Ther PR HIV1 group M: 52
RT HIV1 group M: 47
Agyingi (2014) The evolution of HIV-1 group M genetic variability in Southern Cameroon is characterized by several emerging recombinant forms of CRF02_AG and viruses with drug resistance mutations. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 106
RT HIV1 group M: 104
de Lourdes Teixeira (2015) High rates of baseline antiretroviral resistance among HIV-infected pregnant women in an HIV referral centre in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Int J STD AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 231
RT HIV1 group M: 231
Sagoe (2016) Short-term treatment outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 and hepatitis B virus co-infections. An Acad Bras Cienc PR HIV1 group M: 18
RT HIV1 group M: 22
Sagoe (2012) Distinct patterns of protease gene polymorphisms in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains found in drug naive individuals in Ghana. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 15
RT HIV1 group M: 15
Chehadeh (2015) Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance profile among treatment-naïve people in Kuwait. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 30
RT HIV1 group M: 30
Bracho (2014) Emerging trends in CRF02_AG variants transmission among men who have sex with men in Spain. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 41
RT HIV1 group M: 41
Nzeyimana (2013) Monitoring of HIV-1 drug resistance and associated programmatic factors in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy at two ART sites in Bujumbura, Burundi. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 244
RT HIV1 group M: 244
Brenner (2016) Development of a G118R mutation in HIV-1 integrase following a switch to dolutegravir monotherapy leading to cross-resistance to integrase inhibitors. J Antimicrob Chemother IN HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Kannangai (2015) Frequency of transmitted drug resistance mutations among treatment-naive HIV-1-infected individuals at a tertiary care centre in South India. Mol Diagn Ther PR HIV1 group M: 127
RT HIV1 group M: 127
Waleria-Aleixo (2008) Drug resistance mutation profile and accumulation kinetics in human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals infected with subtypes B and F failing highly active antiretroviral therapy are influenced by different viral codon usage patterns. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 911
RT HIV1 group M: 911
Ndahimana Jd Riedel (2016) HIV drug resistance mutations among patients failing second-line antiretroviral therapy in Rwanda. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 31
RT HIV1 group M: 31
Zheng (2013) Molecular characterization of ambiguous mutations in HIV-1 polymerase gene: implications for monitoring HIV infection status and drug resistance. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 49
RT HIV1 group M: 49
Sharma (2016) Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among the HIV infected people of Manipur, Northeastern India: emergence of unique recombinant forms. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 51
RT HIV1 group M: 64
Tamalet (2013) Primary HIV-1 infection from Marseille, France. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 73
RT HIV1 group M: 73
Neogi (2015) HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase from therapy naive individuals from India. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 297
RT HIV1 group M: 297
Kim (2013) HIV antiretroviral resistance mutations among antiretroviral treatment-naive and -experienced patients in South Korea. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 83
RT HIV1 group M: 81
Abram (2016) Pre-existing HIV-1 integrase polymorphisms do not impact treatment response to elvitegravir-containing fixed-dose combination regimens in treatment-naive patients. HIV Drug Therapy 2016 Glasgow IN HIV1 group M: 52
Chew (2015) Low prevalence of hepatitis C co-infection in recently HIV-infected minority men who have sex with men in Los Angeles: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 51
RT HIV1 group M: 51
Taylor (2014) Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infections in Austria. Wien Klin Wochenschr PR HIV2: 7
RT HIV2: 7
IN HIV2: 5
Yao (2015) Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of 92 HIV-1 clinical isolates from antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected individuals in Yunnan province, China. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 92
RT HIV1 group M: 92
Wolf (2016) Phylogenetic evidence of HIV-1 transmission between adult and adolescent men who have sex with men. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2849
RT HIV1 group M: 2850
Deuzing (2015) Mutation V111I in HIV-2 reverse transcriptase increases the fitness of the nucleoside analogue-resistant K65R and Q151M viruses. J Virol RT HIV2: 72
Heipertz (2016) Significant contribution of subtype G to HIV-1 genetic complexity in Nigeria identified by a newly developed subtyping assay specific for subtype G and CRF02_AG. Medicine (Baltimore) PR HIV1 group M: 42
RT HIV1 group M: 42
IN HIV1 group M: 42
Worobey (2016) 1970s and 'Patient 0' HIV-1 genomes illuminate early HIV/AIDS history in North America. Nature PR HIV1 group M: 11
RT HIV1 group M: 11
IN HIV1 group M: 11
Zhang (2016) Phylogenetic characteristics of HIV-1 among travelers entering China from Myanmar: A retrospective study. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 81
RT HIV1 group M: 81
Yamaguchi (2017) HIV-2 surveillance with next-generation sequencing reveals mutations in a cytotoxic lymphocyte-restricted epitope involved in long-term nonprogression. ARHR PR HIV2: 8
RT HIV2: 8
IN HIV2: 8
Thao (2012) HIV-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive individuals with HIV-1-associated tuberculous meningitis initiating antiretroviral therapy in Vietnam. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 219
RT HIV1 group M: 219
Gashnikova (2016) HIV-1 epidemiology, genetic diversity, and primary drug resistance in the Tyumen Oblast, Russia. Biomed Res Int PR HIV1 group M: 68
RT HIV1 group M: 68
IN HIV1 group M: 67
Rodgers (2017) Sensitive next-generation sequencing method reveals deep genetic diversity of HIV-1 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 14
RT HIV1 group M: 14
IN HIV1 group M: 20
Kekitiinwa (2017) Virologic response to first-line efavirenz- or nevirapine-based anti-retroviral therapy in HIV-infected African children. Pediatr Infect Dis J RT HIV1 group M: 236
Reynolds (2016) Low rates of transmitted drug resistance among newly identified HIV-1 seroconverters in rural Rakai,Uganda. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 24
RT HIV1 group M: 24
Ragonnet-Cronin (2016) A direct comparison of two densely sampled HIV epidemics: the UK and Switzerland. Sci Rep PR HIV1 group M: 2280
RT HIV1 group M: 2262
Perez-Parra (2016) Phylodynamic and phylogeographic profiles of subtype B HIV-1 epidemics in south Spain. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 50
RT HIV1 group M: 50
Chimukangara (2016) HIV drug resistance testing among patients failing second line antiretroviral therapy. Comparison of in-house and commercial sequencing. J Virol Methods PR HIV1 group M: 25
RT HIV1 group M: 25
Onywera (2017) Surveillance of HIV-1 pol transmitted drug resistance in acutely and recently infected antiretroviral drug-naïve persons in rural western Kenya. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 87
RT HIV1 group M: 87
Moskaleychik (2015) Rapid spread of the HIV1 circular recombinant CRF02AG in Russia and neighboring countries. Vopr Virusol PR HIV1 group M: 14
RT HIV1 group M: 14
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Kityo (2017) HIV drug resistance mutations in non-B subtypes after prolonged virological failure on NNRTI-based first-line regimens in sub-Saharan Africa. JAIDS RT HIV1 group M: 787
Vahabpour (2017) HIV-1 genetic diversity and transmitted drug resistance frequency among Iranian treatment-naive, sexually infected individuals. Arch Virol PR HIV1 group M: 42
RT HIV1 group M: 42
Li (2017) Identification of a novel HIV type 1 circulating recombinant form (CRF86_BC) among heterosexuals in Yunnan, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Billings (2016) HIV-1 genetic diversity among incident infections in Mbeya, Tanzania. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 95
RT HIV1 group M: 95
IN HIV1 group M: 97
Abdool Karim (2010) Effectiveness and safety of tenofovir gel, an antiretroviral microbicide, for the prevention of HIV infection in women. Science PR HIV1 group M: 92
RT HIV1 group M: 94
Zhang (2015) Genetic characteristics of CRF01_AE among newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected 16- to 25-year olds in 3 geographic regions of Guangxi, China. Medicine (Baltimore) PR HIV1 group M: 216
RT HIV1 group M: 216
Wu (2015) The predominant cluster of CRF01_AE circulating among newly diagnosed HIV-1-positive people in Anhui Province, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 99
RT HIV1 group M: 99
Escoto-Delgadillo (2016) HIV drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive patients in Mexico after 10 years: is there a difference? ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 123
RT HIV1 group M: 124
Wang (2016) HIV prevalence and phylogenetic characteristics among entry travelers in Xishuangbanna prefecture, Yunnan province, between 2003 and 2012. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 223
RT HIV1 group M: 223
Zeh (2016) Molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics of recent and long-term HIV-1 infections in rural western Kenya. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 258
RT HIV1 group M: 258
Zhao (2016) The dynamics of the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) from 2005 to 2012 in Shenzhen, China. Sci Rep PR HIV1 group M: 1316
RT HIV1 group M: 1316
Smolen-Dzirba (2017) Prevalence of transmitted drug-resistance mutations and polymorphisms in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, protease, and gp41 sequences among recent seroconverters in southern Poland. Med Sci Monit PR HIV1 group M: 28
RT HIV1 group M: 28
Schwem (2014) The changing molecular epidemiology of HIV in the Philippines: major shift from subtype B to CRF01_AE. Open Forum Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 81
RT HIV1 group M: 81
Saravanan (2015) Differences in evolution of HIV-1 subtype C reverse transcriptase between children and adults likely explained by maturity of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 546
Liegler (2014) HIV-1 drug resistance in the iPrEx preexposure prophylaxis trial. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 134
RT HIV1 group M: 134
Karade (2016) Cross-sectional study of virological failure and multinucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance at 12 months of antiretroviral therapy in Western India. Medicine (Baltimore) PR HIV1 group M: 80
RT HIV1 group M: 80
Saeng-Aroon (2016) Circulation of HIV-1 multiple complexity recombinant forms among female sex workers recently infected with HIV-1 in Thailand. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 151
RT HIV1 group M: 158
Ross (2014) HIV-1 transmission patterns in antiretroviral therapy-naive, HIV-infected North Americans based on phylogenetic analysis by population level and ultra-deep DNA sequencing. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 690
RT HIV1 group M: 690
Pandey (2013) Molecular characterization of unique intersubtype HIV type 1 A1/C recombinant strain circulating in Pune, India. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Meeme (2015) Drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral-treated female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya African Journal of Health Sciences RT HIV1 group M: 60
Lapovok (2014) Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 infection in Kazakhstan: CRF02_AG prevalence is increasing in the southeastern provinces. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 155
RT HIV1 group M: 162
Otecko (2016) Viral and host characteristics of recent and established HIV-1 infections in Kisumu based on a multiassay approach. Sci Rep PR HIV1 group M: 100
RT HIV1 group M: 100
Kojima (2008) Recent diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in individuals who visited sexually transmitted infection-related clinics in Osaka, Japan. J Infect Chemother PR HIV1 group M: 34
Dauwe (2015) Characteristics and spread to the native population of HIV-1 non-B subtypes in two European countries with high migration rate. BMC Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 410
RT HIV1 group M: 410
Lima (2016) Epidemiological, clinical and antiretroviral susceptibility characterization of human immunodeficiency virus subtypes B and non-B in Pernambuco, northeast Brazil. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 167
RT HIV1 group M: 167
Giandhari (2015) Genetic changes in HIV-1 gag-protease associated with protease inhibitor-based therapy failure in pediatric patients. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 40
Sucupira (2007) High levels of primary antiretroviral resistance genotypic mutations and B/F recombinants in Santos, Brazil. AIDS Patient Care STDS PR HIV1 group M: 73
RT HIV1 group M: 69
Delatorre (2016) High HIV-1 diversity and prevalence of transmitted drug resistance among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 87
RT HIV1 group M: 87
de Felipe (2011) Prevalence and resistance mutations of non-B HIV-1 subtypes among immigrants in Southern Spain along the decade 2000-2010. Virol J PR HIV1 group M: 91
RT HIV1 group M: 91
Ndase (2012) Outside sexual partnerships and risk of HIV acquisition for HIV uninfected partners in African HIV serodiscordant partnerships. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 286
RT HIV1 group M: 294
Aghokeng (2014) Extraordinary heterogeneity of virological outcomes in patients receiving highly antiretroviral therapy and monitored with the World Health Organization public health approach in sub-saharan Africa and southeast Asia. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 247
RT HIV1 group M: 433
Hoenigl (2016) Characterization of HIV transmission in south-east Austria. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 259
RT HIV1 group M: 258
Huang (2009) Prevalence of HIV type-1 drug-associated mutations in pre-therapy patients in the Free State, South Africa. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 238
RT HIV1 group M: 248
Baudi (2016) Molecular epidemiology of co-infection with hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among adult patients in Harare, Zimbabwe. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 164
RT HIV1 group M: 164
Grgic (2013) The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in Croatia: the role of transmission clusters of men who have sex with men carrying the T215S surveillance drug resistance mutation. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 119
RT HIV1 group M: 119
Zain (2017) Identifications of drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral treatment naive HIV-1 patients in Peninsular Malaysia. Asian Pac J Trop Med PR HIV1 group M: 41
RT HIV1 group M: 41
Steegen (2016) Moderate levels of pre-treatment HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance detected in the first South African national survey. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 277
RT HIV1 group M: 277
Li (2016) The prevalence of drug resistance among treatment-naive HIV-1-infected individuals in China during pre- and post- 2004. BMC Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 434
RT HIV1 group M: 478
IN HIV1 group M: 59
Lu (2016) Surveillance of transmitted drug resistance in HIV-1-infected youths aged 16 to 25 years, a decade after scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Hebei, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 145
RT HIV1 group M: 145
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Faria (2012) Phylogeographical footprint of colonial history in the global dispersal of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 group A. J Gen Virol PR HIV2: 84
RT HIV2: 84
Hora (2015) Genetic characterization of a panel of diverse HIV-1 isolates at seven international sites. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 166
RT HIV1 group M: 166
IN HIV1 group M: 166
PR HIV2: 1
RT HIV2: 1
IN HIV2: 1
Ibe (2010) HIV-2 CRF01_AB: first circulating recombinant form of HIV-2. JAIDS PR HIV2: 3
RT HIV2: 3
IN HIV2: 3
Ayouba (2013) Evidence for continuing cross-species transmission of SIVsmm to humans: characterization of a new HIV-2 lineage in rural Cote d'Ivoire. AIDS PR HIV2: 1
RT HIV2: 1
IN HIV2: 1
Bercoff (2010) Polymorphisms of HIV-2 integrase and selection of resistance to raltegravir. Retrovirology PR HIV2: 47
RT HIV2: 47
IN HIV2: 52
Inzaule (2016) Prevalence and dynamics of the K65R drug resistance mutation in HIV-1-infected infants exposed to maternal therapy with lamivudine, zidovudine and either nevirapine or nelfinavir in breast milk. J Antimicrob Chemother PR HIV1 group M: 21
RT HIV1 group M: 21
Alcantara (2013) Increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 subtype C in inland central western Brazil. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 130
RT HIV1 group M: 131
Matthews (2008) Central role of reverting mutations in HLA associations with human immunodeficiency virus set point. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 406
RT HIV1 group M: 428
IN HIV1 group M: 268
Kobayashi (2011) In Vitro antiretroviral properties of S/GSK1349572, a next-generation HIV integrase inhibitor AAC IN HIV1 group M: 48
Brumme (2009) HLA-associated immune escape pathways in HIV-1 subtype B gag, pol and nef proteins. PLoS Med PR HIV1 group M: 683
RT HIV1 group M: 1059
IN HIV1 group M: 976
Saad (2006) Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 in Ukraine: birthplace of an epidemic. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 163
RT HIV1 group M: 163
IN HIV1 group M: 12
Bouzeghoub (2006) High diversity of HIV type 1 in Algeria. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 135
RT HIV1 group M: 117
Carr (2005) Outbreak of west African recombinant of HIV-1 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 233
RT HIV1 group M: 232
IN HIV1 group M: 12
Sirivichayakul (2001) Survey of reverse transcriptase from the heterosexual epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF01_AE in Thailand from 1990 to 2000. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 9
RT HIV1 group M: 48
Vergne (2000) Genetic diversity of protease and reverse transcriptase sequences in non-subtype-B human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains: evidence of many minor drug resistance mutations in treatment-naive patients. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 136
PR HIV1 group O: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 136
RT HIV1 group O: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Alizon (1986) Genetic variability of the AIDS virus: nucleotide sequence analysis of two isolates from African patients. Cell PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2

 

2016
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Rhee (2017) Mutational Correlates of Virological Failure in Individuals Receiving a WHO-Recommended Tenofovir-Containing First-Line Regimen: An International Collaboration. EBioMedicine RT HIV1 group M: 2873
Chow (2016) Extensive genetic diversity of HIV-1 in incident and prevalent infections among Malaysian blood donors: multiple introductions of HIV-1 genotypes from highly prevalent countries. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 152
RT HIV1 group M: 143
Tzitzivacos (2009) Viral genetic determinants of nonprogressive HIV type 1 subtype C infection in antiretroviral drug-naive children. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 7
RT HIV1 group M: 7
IN HIV1 group M: 7
Meng (2013) Five new CRF07_BC near full-length sequences isolated from Sichuan, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 7
RT HIV1 group M: 7
IN HIV1 group M: 7
Lam (2016) Antiretroviral resistance after first-line antiretroviral therapy failure in diverse HIV-1 subtypes in the SECOND-LINE study. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 492
RT HIV1 group M: 492
Steegen (2016) HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance patterns in patients failing NNRTI-based treatment: results from a national survey in South Africa. J Antimicrob Chemother PR HIV1 group M: 788
RT HIV1 group M: 788
Rutvisuttinunt (2012) Two unique recombinant forms identified in incident HIV type 1 infections in Thai blood donors. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 9
RT HIV1 group M: 9
IN HIV1 group M: 9
Zhou (2008) A new CRF01_AE/B recombinant structure of HIV type 1 found in Heilongjiang province, China. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 30
Li (2005) Molecular epidemiology of the heterosexual HIV-1 transmission in Kunming, Yunnan province of China suggests origin from the local IDU epidemic. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 26
RT HIV1 group M: 26
Dinesha (2016) Genotypic HIV-1 drug resistance among patients failing tenofovir-based first-line HAART in South India. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 167
Pessoa (2015) Enhanced detection of viral diversity using partial and near full-length genomes of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 provirus deep sequencing data from recently infected donors at four blood centers in Brazil. Transfusion PR HIV1 group M: 40
RT HIV1 group M: 43
IN HIV1 group M: 42
Sutherland (2015) Gag-protease sequence evolution following protease inhibitor monotherapy treatment failure in HIV-1 viruses circulating in East Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 46
Margot (2010) Phenotypic susceptibility to bevirimat in isolates from HIV-1-infected patients without prior exposure to bevirimat. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 31
Feng (2016) Geographic origin and evolutionary history of China's two predominant HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms, CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC. Sci Rep PR HIV1 group M: 19
RT HIV1 group M: 20
IN HIV1 group M: 20
Li (2012) Tracing the origin and history of HIV-1 subtype B' epidemic by near full-length genome analyses. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 33
RT HIV1 group M: 33
IN HIV1 group M: 33
Li (2014) Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Jilin province, northeastern China: emergence of a new CRF07_BC transmission cluster and intersubtype recombinants. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Pouran Yousef (2016) Inferring HIV-1 transmission dynamics in Germany from recently transmitted viruses. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 1943
RT HIV1 group M: 1943
Rodes (2006) High rate of proV47A selection in HIV-2 patients failing lopinavir-based HAART. AIDS PR HIV2: 3
Charpentier (2014) Genotypic resistance profiles of HIV-2-treated patients in West Africa. AIDS PR HIV2: 27
RT HIV2: 25
Rodes (2016) HIV-2 protease sequences from treatment naive patients attending a hospital in Coimbra, Portugal. unpublished PR HIV2: 6
Struck (2015) Near full-length characterization and population dynamics of the human immunodeficiency virus type I circulating recombinant form 42 (CRF42_BF) in Luxembourg. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 24
RT HIV1 group M: 24
Witaningrum (2016) Genotypic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 derived from antiretroviral therapy-naive individuals residing in Sorong, West Papua. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 41
RT HIV1 group M: 31
Neogi (2016) Mutational Heterogeneity in p6 Gag Late Assembly (L) Domains in HIV-1 Subtype C Viruses from South Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 388
RT HIV1 group M: 388
Gashnikova (2016) Predominance of CRF63_02A1 and multiple patterns of unique recombinant forms of CRF63_A1 among individuals with newly diagnosed HIV-1 infection in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia. Arch Virol PR HIV1 group M: 46
RT HIV1 group M: 46
IN HIV1 group M: 47
Posada Cespedes (2017) Learning evolutionary pathways of HIV-1 subtype C under lopinavir treatment IAS 2017 PR HIV1 group M: 3629
RT HIV1 group M: 3641
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Aulicino (2012) Characterization of full-length HIV-1 CRF17_BF genomes and comparison to the prototype CRF12_BF strains Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Zhu (1995) Was HIV present in 1959? Nature PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Wilkinson (2015) Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of near full-length HIV-1 subtypes A, B, G and unique recombinant AC and AD viral strains identified in South Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 7
RT HIV1 group M: 7
IN HIV1 group M: 7
Cho (2013) Phylogenetic analysis of near full-length HIV type 1 genomic sequences from 21 Korean individuals. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 24
RT HIV1 group M: 24
IN HIV1 group M: 24
Lau (2007) Near full-length sequence analysis of a unique CRF01_AE/B recombinant from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Cheong (2014) Cross-border sexual transmission of the newly emerging HIV-1 clade CRF51_01B. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Gui (2015) Genetic Characterization of a Unique Recombinant Originating from CRF55_01B, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC in Shenzhen, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Charurat (2012) Characterization of acute HIV-1 infection in high-risk Nigerian populations. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 14
RT HIV1 group M: 14
IN HIV1 group M: 14
Lee (2016) Characterization of the near full-length genome of a novel HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC recombinant in an injection drug user from southern Taiwan. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 5
Su (2016) Identification of a Novel HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF85_BC) in Sichuan, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 10
RT HIV1 group M: 10
IN HIV1 group M: 10
Wei (2013) Near full-length genomic characterization of a novel HIV type 1 CRF07_ BC/01_AE recombinant in men who have sex with men from Sichuan, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Li (2011) High genetic diversity of HIV-1 was found in men who have sex with men in Shijiazhuang, China. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 15
RT HIV1 group M: 15
IN HIV1 group M: 15
Delatorre (2016) Tracing the origin of a singular HIV-1 CRF45_cpx clade identified in Brazil. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
Leoz (2011) Circulation of multiple patterns of unique recombinant forms B/CRF02_AG in France: precursor signs of the emergence of an upcoming CRF B/02. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 5
Song (2016) Near-full-length genome sequences of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form, CRF01_AE/B'/C (CRF78_cpx), in Yunnan, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Choi (1997) HIV type 1 isolate Z321, the strain used to make a therapeutic HIV type 1 immunogen, is intersubtype recombinant. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Feng (2013) The rapidly expanding CRF01_AE epidemic in China is driven by multiple lineages of HIV-1 viruses introduced in the 1990s. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 75
RT HIV1 group M: 75
IN HIV1 group M: 75
Han (2015) Development of an HIV-1 subtype panel in China: isolation and characterization of 30 HIV-1 primary strains circulating in China. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 25
RT HIV1 group M: 27
IN HIV1 group M: 27
Cuevas (2010) Biological and genetic characterization of HIV type 1 subtype B and nonsubtype B transmitted viruses: usefulness for vaccine candidate assessment. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 39
RT HIV1 group M: 39
IN HIV1 group M: 39
Li (2016) HIV-1 Thai B strain has spread out of former plasma donors into general population through sexual contact in Henan, China. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 118
RT HIV1 group M: 118
IN HIV1 group M: 118
Delgado (2015) Phylogeny and phylogeography of a recent HIV-1 subtype F outbreak among men who have sex with men in Spain deriving from a cluster with a wide geographic circulation in western Europe. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 62
RT HIV1 group M: 61
IN HIV1 group M: 16
Jahanbakhsh (2013) Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 infection in Iran: genomic evidence of CRF35_AD predominance and CRF01_AE infection among individuals associated with injection drug use. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 10
RT HIV1 group M: 10
IN HIV1 group M: 10
Amogne (2016) Phylogenetic analysis of Ethiopian HIV-1 Subtype C near full-length genomes reveals high intrasubtype diversity and a strong geographical cluster. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 133
RT HIV1 group M: 133
IN HIV1 group M: 24
Bartolo (2016) Rare HIV-1 subtype J genomes and a new H/U/CRF02_AG recombinant genome suggests an ancient origin of HIV-1 in Angola. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Lihana (2009) HIV type 1 subtype diversity and drug resistance among HIV type 1-infected Kenyan patients initiating antiretroviral therapy. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 51
Lunar (2015) Longitudinal trends of recent HIV-1 infections in Slovenia (1986-2012) determined using an incidence algorithm. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 53
RT HIV1 group M: 53
Larrouy L (2013) Impact of gag genetic determinants on virological outcome to boosted lopinavir-containing regimen in HIV-2-infected patients. AIDS PR HIV2: 35
Rodes (2006) Human immunodeficiency virus 2 pol protein (pol) gene, partial cds. unpublished PR HIV2: 44
Xu (2008) Genetic diversity of integrase (IN) sequences in antiretroviral treatment-naive and treatment-experienced HIV type 2 patients. ARHR IN HIV2: 11
Cavaco-Silva (2014) HIV-2 integrase polymorphisms and longitudinal genotypic analysis of HIV-2 infected patients failing a raltegravir-containing regimen. PLoS ONE IN HIV2: 79
de Pina-Araujo (2014) Profile of the HIV epidemic in Cape Verde: molecular epidemiology and drug resistance mutations among HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected patients from distinct islands of the archipelago. PLoS ONE PR HIV2: 30
RT HIV2: 30
Charpentier (2011) Hot spots of integrase genotypic changes leading to HIV-2 resistance to raltegravir. AAC IN HIV2: 11
Damond (2005) Polymorphism of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) protease gene and selection of drug resistance mutations in HIV-2-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV2: 94
Jallow (2006) Virological and immunological response to Combivir and emergence of drug resistance mutations in a cohort of HIV-2 patients in The Gambia. AIDS PR HIV2: 28
RT HIV2: 28
Abdoel Wahid (2016) HIV-1 genetic diversity and drug resistance mutations among treatment-naive adult patients in Suriname. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 99
RT HIV1 group M: 95
Salgado (2009) Mutation N155H in HIV-2 integrase confers high phenotypic resistance to raltegravir and impairs replication capacity. J Clin Virol IN HIV2: 5
Gurjar (2009) Molecular characterization of a full-length genome of a HIV-2 isolate from India. JAIDS PR HIV2: 1
RT HIV2: 1
IN HIV2: 1
Youngpairoj (2014) Reference panel of cloned HIV-2 plasmid DNA for nucleic acid assay development, evaluation, and quality monitoring. J Clin Virol PR HIV2: 11
RT HIV2: 11
IN HIV2: 11
Parreira (2006) Natural polymorphisms of HIV type 2 pol sequences from drug-naive individuals. ARHR PR HIV2: 15
RT HIV2: 15
Ruelle (2007) Genetic polymorphisms and resistance mutations of HIV type 2 in antiretroviral-naive patients in Burkina Faso. ARHR PR HIV2: 14
RT HIV2: 17
Jallow (2009) Presence of a multidrug-resistance mutation in an HIV-2 variant infecting a treatment-naive individual in Caio, Guinea Bissau. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV2: 17
RT HIV2: 23
Jiamsakul (2013) HIV multi-drug resistance at first-line antiretroviral failure and subsequent virological response in Asia. J Int AIDS Soc PR HIV1 group M: 105
RT HIV1 group M: 105
Ye (2014) Phylogenetic and temporal dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1B in China: four types of B strains circulate in China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 197
RT HIV1 group M: 197
Martin (2014) Early immune adaptation in HIV-1 revealed by population-level approaches. Retrovirology PR HIV1 group M: 116
RT HIV1 group M: 116
IN HIV1 group M: 126
Han (2013) Identification of 3 distinct HIV-1 founding strains responsible for expanding epidemic among men who have sex with men in 9 Chinese cities. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 544
RT HIV1 group M: 544
Mulu (2015) Lack of integrase inhibitors associated resistance mutations among HIV-1C isolates. J Transl Med IN HIV1 group M: 43
Moura (2015) HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance and genetic diversity among patients from Piaui State, Northeast Brazil. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 89
RT HIV1 group M: 89
Lin (2015) Slow immunological progression in HIV-1 CRF07_BC-infected injecting drug users. Emerg Microbes Infect PR HIV1 group M: 122
RT HIV1 group M: 122
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Ndahimana (2016) Drug resistance mutations after the first 12 months on antiretroviral therapy and determinants of virologic failure in Rwanda. Trop Med Int Health PR HIV1 group M: 70
RT HIV1 group M: 70
Bao (2014) Characteristics of HIV-1 natural drug resistance-associated mutations in former paid blood donors in Henan Province, China. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 99
RT HIV1 group M: 107
Abdissa (2014) Drug resistance in HIV patients with virological failure or slow virological response to antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 28
RT HIV1 group M: 28
Pandey (2016) Phylogenetic and molecular characterization of six full-length HIV-1 genomes from India reveals a monophyletic lineage of Indian sub-subtype A1. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Fokam (2016) Population-based surveillance of HIV-1 drug resistance in Cameroonian adults initiating antiretroviral therapy according to the World Health Organization guidelines. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 53
RT HIV1 group M: 53
Darcissac (2016) HIV-1 pol gene polymorphism and antiretroviral resistance mutations in treatment-naive adult patients in French Guiana between 2006 and 2012. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 303
RT HIV1 group M: 304
Novitsky (2015) Long-range HIV genotyping using viral RNA and proviral DNA for analysis of HIV drug resistance and HIV clustering. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 625
RT HIV1 group M: 606
IN HIV1 group M: 647
Weng (2014) Prevalence and associated factors for HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance in voluntary clients for counseling and testing in Southern Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect PR HIV1 group M: 161
RT HIV1 group M: 161
Kinloch (2015) Population-level immune-mediated adaptation in HIV-1 polymerase during the North American epidemic. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 321
RT HIV1 group M: 321
IN HIV1 group M: 287
Diaz (2015) The virological and immunological characteristics of the HIV-1-infected population in Brazil: from initial diagnosis to impact of antiretroviral use. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 7486
RT HIV1 group M: 7444
Hosaka (2016) HIV-1 CRF01_AE and subtype B transmission networks crossover: a new AE/B recombinant identified in Japan. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 17
RT HIV1 group M: 17
IN HIV1 group M: 13
Liu (2015) Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 CRF65_CPX reveals Yunnan province is still a source contributing to the spread of HIV-1 in China. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
Palm (2015) Cocirculation of several similar but unique HIV-1 recombinant forms in Guinea-Bissau revealed by near full-length genomic sequencing. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Tongo (2015) Near full-length HIV type 1M genomic sequences from Cameroon : Evidence of early diverging under-sampled lineages in the country. Evol Med Public Health PR HIV1 group M: 9
RT HIV1 group M: 8
IN HIV1 group M: 8
Pessoa (2016) Ultra-deep sequencing of HIV-1 near full-length and partial proviral genomes reveals high genetic diversity among Brazilian blood donors. PLoS One PR HIV1 group M: 196
RT HIV1 group M: 191
IN HIV1 group M: 184
Cheriro (2015) High prevalence of HIV low abundance drug-resistant variants in a treatment-naive population in north rift Kenya. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 55
RT HIV1 group M: 59
Panichsillapakit (2016) Prevalence of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance Among Recently Infected Persons in San Diego, CA 1996-2013. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 496
RT HIV1 group M: 496
Jiamsakul (2015) Transmitted drug resistance in recently infected HIV-positive Individuals from four urban locations across Asia (2007-2010) - TASER-S. AIDS Res Ther PR HIV1 group M: 14
RT HIV1 group M: 14
Memarnejadian (2015) Transmitted drug resistance mutations in antiretroviral-naïve injection drug users with chronic HIV-1 infection in Iran. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 40
RT HIV1 group M: 40
Pham (2015) Change in the prevalence of HIV-1 and the rate of transmitted drug-resistant HIV-1 in Haiphong, Northern Vietnam. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 61
Barrow (2013) HIV-1 drug resistance in treatment-naive chronically infected patients in Jamaica. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 75
RT HIV1 group M: 75
Budambula (2015) HIV-1 protease inhibitor drug resistance in Kenyan antiretroviral treatment-naive and -experienced injection drug users and non-drug users. AIDS Res Ther PR HIV1 group M: 132
Guimaraes (2015) Assessing the HIV-1 epidemic in Brazilian drug users: a molecular epidemiology approach. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 132
RT HIV1 group M: 132
Hachiya (2015) Natural polymorphism S119R of HIV-1 integrase enhances primary INSTI resistance. Antiviral Res IN HIV1 group M: 599
Cuevas (2015) Extremely high mutation rate of HIV-1 in vivo. PLoS Biol PR HIV1 group M: 11
RT HIV1 group M: 11
IN HIV1 group M: 11
Onsongo (2016) Prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations in HIV-1-infected drug-naive patients from urban and suburban regions of Kenya. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 63
Van Tran (2016) A strong association of human leukocyte antigen-associated Pol and Gag mutations with clinical parameters in HIV-1 subtype A/E infection. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 359
RT HIV1 group M: 359
IN HIV1 group M: 359
Li (2015) Trends of HIV subtypes and phylogenetic dynamics among young men who have sex with men in China, 2009-2014. Sci Rep PR HIV1 group M: 1204
RT HIV1 group M: 1205
Dos Anjos Silva (2016) HIV-1 genetic diversity and transmitted drug resistance in antiretroviral treatment-naive individuals from Amapa state, northern Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 97
RT HIV1 group M: 97
Kaleebu (2015) Virological response and antiretroviral drug resistance emerging during antiretroviral therapy at three treatment centers in Uganda. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 35
RT HIV1 group M: 35
Caplinskas (2013) Distinct HIV type 1 strains in different risk groups and the absence of new infections by drug-resistant strains in Lithuania. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 27
RT HIV1 group M: 27
Courtney (2015) Monitoring HIV-1 group M subtypes in Yaounde, Cameroon reveals broad genetic diversity and a novel CRF02_AG/F2 infection. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 109
Boillot (2016) Programmatic feasibility of dried blood spots for the virological follow-up of patients on antiretroviral treatment in Nord Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 42
RT HIV1 group M: 55
Cheong (2015) Genetic characterization of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF74_01B) identified among intravenous drug users in Malaysia: recombination history and phylogenetic linkage with previously defined recombinant lineages. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Billings (2016) The number and complexity of pure and recombinant HIV-1 strains observed within incident infections during the HIV and malaria cohort study conducted in Kericho, Kenya, from 2003 to 2006. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 58
RT HIV1 group M: 58
IN HIV1 group M: 58
Abdellaziz (2016) Predominance of CRF06_cpx and Transmitted HIV Resistance in Algeria: Update 2013-2014. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 119
RT HIV1 group M: 109
Ugbena (2012) Virological response and HIV drug resistance 12 months after antiretroviral therapy initiation at 2 clinics in Nigeria. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 13
RT HIV1 group M: 13
Etiebet (2013) Tenofovir-based regimens associated with less drug resistance in HIV-1-infected Nigerians failing first-line antiretroviral therapy. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 21
RT HIV1 group M: 21
Meini (2015) Frequent detection of antiretroviral drug resistance in HIV-1-infected orphaned children followed at a donor-funded rural pediatric clinic in Dodoma, Tanzania. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 81
RT HIV1 group M: 79
Rokx (2015) Increased virological failure in naive HIV-1-infected patients taking lamivudine compared with emtricitabine in combination with tenofovir and efavirenz or nevirapine in the Dutch nationwide ATHENA cohort. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 67
RT HIV1 group M: 68
Neogi (2014) Temporal trends in the Swedish HIV-1 epidemic: increase in non-B subtypes and recombinant forms over three decades. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 48
RT HIV1 group M: 48
Yang (2015) Assessing efficacy of different nucleos(t)ide backbones in NNRTI-containing regimens in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. J Antimicrob Chemother PR HIV1 group M: 16
RT HIV1 group M: 16
Sobrino-Vegas (2011) The Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network (CoRIS) and its associated biobank; organizational issues, main findings and losses to follow-up. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin PR HIV1 group M: 43
RT HIV1 group M: 43
Hunt (2017) Rates of virological suppression and drug resistance in adult HIV-1-positive patients attending primary healthcare facilities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Antimicrob Chemother PR HIV1 group M: 115
RT HIV1 group M: 115
Brooks (2016) Treatment failure and drug resistance in HIV-positive patients on tenofovir-based first-line antiretroviral therapy in western Kenya. J Int AIDS Soc RT HIV1 group M: 37
Munir (2015) G118R and F121Y mutations identified in patients failing raltegravir treatment confer dolutegravir resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother IN HIV1 group M: 7
Mesplede (2014) Addition of E138K to R263K in HIV integrase increases resistance to dolutegravir, but fails to restore activity of the HIV integrase enzyme and viral replication capacity. AIDS IN HIV1 group M: 4
Liang (2015) The combination of the R263K and T66I resistance substitutions in HIV-1 integrase is incompatible with high-level viral replication and the development of high-level drug resistance. J Virol IN HIV1 group M: 5
Cutillas (2015) The R262K substitution combined with H51Y in HIV-1 subtype B integrase confers low-level resistance against dolutegravir. AAC IN HIV1 group M: 3
Yoshinaga (2015) Antiviral characteristics of GSK1265744, an HIV integrase inhibitor dosed orally or by long-acting injection. AAC IN HIV1 group M: 50
Anstett (2015) Dolutegravir-selected HIV-1 containing the N155H and R263K resistance substitutions does not acquire additional compensatory mutations under drug pressure that lead to higher-level resistance and increased replicative capacity. J Virol IN HIV1 group M: 7
Anstett (2015) Dolutegravir resistance mutation R263K cannot coexist in combination with many classical integrase inhibitor resistance substitutions. J Virol IN HIV1 group M: 8
Van Zyl (2013) Trends in genotypic HIV-1 antiretroviral resistance between 2006 and 2012 in South African patients receiving first- and second-line antiretroviral treatment regimens. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 1599
RT HIV1 group M: 1603
Hamers (2012) Patterns of HIV-1 drug resistance after first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure in 6 sub-Saharan African countries: implications for second-line ART strategies. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 149
RT HIV1 group M: 149
Rousseau (2006) Large-scale amplification, cloning and sequencing of near full-length HIV-1 subtype C genomes. J Virol Methods PR HIV1 group M: 271
RT HIV1 group M: 265
IN HIV1 group M: 266

 

2015
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Rossouw (2015) Factors associated with the development of drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 infected children failing protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 65
RT HIV1 group M: 65
Guo (2015) Low prevalence of the transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Jiangsu Province, China during 2009-2011. BMC Public Health PR HIV1 group M: 130
RT HIV1 group M: 130
Li (2015) CRF07_BC strain dominates the HIV-1 epidemic in injection drug users in Liangshan prefecture of Sichuan, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 283
RT HIV1 group M: 284
IN HIV1 group M: 284
Chin (2015) Increase of HIV-1 K103N transmitted drug resistance and its association with efavirenz use in South Korea. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 131
RT HIV1 group M: 131
Kouri (2015) CRF19_cpx is an evolutionary fit HIV-1 variant strongly associated with rapid progression to AIDS in Cuba. EBioMedicine PR HIV1 group M: 92
RT HIV1 group M: 92
Grossmann (2015) Subtype-independent near full-length HIV-1 genome sequencing and assembly to be used in large molecular epidemiological studies and clinical management. J Int AIDS Soc PR HIV1 group M: 24
RT HIV1 group M: 24
IN HIV1 group M: 24
Kusagawa (2015) Novel HIV-1 recombinant identified in a foreign heterosexual resident in Japan: relatedness to recently reported CRF69_01B, detected primarily among Japanese men who have sex with men. Genome Announc PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Van Laethem (2008) A genotypic assay for the amplification and sequencing of integrase from diverse HIV-1 group M subtypes. J Virol Methods IN HIV1 group M: 70
Msimanga (2015) HIV-1 diversity in an antiretroviral treatment naive cohort from Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Virol J PR HIV1 group M: 13
RT HIV1 group M: 12
Gashnikova (2015) A rapid expansion of HIV-1 CRF63_02A1 among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in the Tomsk Region, Russia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 46
Wang (2015) Targeting HIV prevention based on molecular epidemiology among deeply sampled subnetworks of men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 175
RT HIV1 group M: 175
Li (2015) HIV-1 genetic diversity and its impact on baseline CD4+T cells and viral loads among recently infected men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 1265
RT HIV1 group M: 1265
Lu (2015) HIV-1 genetic diversity and transmitted drug resistance among recently infected individuals at men who have sex with men sentinel surveillance points in Hebei province, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 48
RT HIV1 group M: 48
Laga (2015) HIV type 1 subtype A1 dominates in Armenia. Curr HIV Res PR HIV1 group M: 75
RT HIV1 group M: 77
Carvalho (2015) Analysis of a local HIV-1 epidemic in portugal highlights established transmission of non-B and non-G subtypes. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 289
RT HIV1 group M: 286
Zhang (2015) Genetic diversity of HIV-1 and transmitted drug resistance among newly diagnosed individuals with HIV infection in Hangzhou, China. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 200
RT HIV1 group M: 200
Bruzzone (2015) Prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1-positive treatment-naive pregnant women in Pointe Noire, Republic of the Congo (Kento-Mwana project). ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 65
RT HIV1 group M: 65
Moura (2015) Low rate of transmitted drug resistance may indicate low access to antiretroviral treatment in Maranhao State, northeast Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 106
RT HIV1 group M: 106
Seu (2015) Characterization of HIV drug resistance mutations among patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy from a tertiary referral center in Lusaka, Zambia. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 68
RT HIV1 group M: 68
Wallis (2014) Drug susceptibility and resistance mutations after first-line failure in resource limited settings. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 148
RT HIV1 group M: 148
Zhou (2014) Diverse forms of HIV-1 among Burmese long-distance truck drivers imply their contribution to HIV-1 cross-border transmission. BMC Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 82
RT HIV1 group M: 82
Yan (2015) Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of HIV infection among money boys and general men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 52
RT HIV1 group M: 52
Wang (2015) HIV-1 prevalence and subtype/recombinant distribution among travelers entering China from Vietnam at the HeKou port in the Yunnan province, China, between 2003 and 2012. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 78
RT HIV1 group M: 78
Guimaraes (2015) Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Recently Diagnosed Adults and Children in Sao Paulo, Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 217
RT HIV1 group M: 215
Alexiev (2015) Low HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance in Bulgaria against a background of high clade diversity. J Antimicrob Chemother PR HIV1 group M: 305
RT HIV1 group M: 302
Pessoa (2014) Identification of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF72_BF1) in deep sequencing data from blood donors in southeastern Brazil. Genome Announc PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 5
Parczewski (2014) Transmitted HIV drug resistance in antiretroviral-treatment-naive patients from Poland differs by transmission category and subtype. J Antimicrob Chemother PR HIV1 group M: 837
RT HIV1 group M: 837
Niculescu (2014) Recent HIV-1 outbreak among intravenous drug users in Romania: evidence for cocirculation of CRF14_BG and subtype F1 strains. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 138
RT HIV1 group M: 138
Loubet (2014) Prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance in Liberia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 109
RT HIV1 group M: 102
Huruy (2015) Limited increase in primary HIV-1C drug resistance mutations in treatment nave individuals in Ethiopia. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 83
RT HIV1 group M: 83
Velasco-de-Castro (2014) HIV-1 diversity and drug resistance mutations among people seeking HIV diagnosis in voluntary counseling and testing sites in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 244
RT HIV1 group M: 245
Zhao (2014) Genotypes and transmitted drug resistance among treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients in a northwestern province, China: trends from 2003 to 2013. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 357
RT HIV1 group M: 357
Skhosana (2015) High Prevalence of the K65R Mutation in HIV-1 Subtype C Infected Patients Failing Tenofovir-Based First-Line Regimens in South Africa. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 160
RT HIV1 group M: 160
DeJesus (2012) Co-formulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus ritonavir-boosted atazanavir plus co-formulated emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority trial. Lancet IN HIV1 group M: 57
Sax (2012) Co-formulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir versus co-formulated efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial, analysis of results after 48 weeks. Lancet IN HIV1 group M: 81
Molina (2012) Efficacy and safety of once daily elvitegravir versus twice daily raltegravir in treatment-experienced patients with HIV-1 receiving a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor: randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority study. Lancet Infect Dis IN HIV1 group M: 413
Hurt (2014) Resistance to HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors among clinical specimens in the United States, 2009-2012. Clin Infect Dis IN HIV1 group M: 3332
Hassan (2014) HIV-1 virologic failure and acquired drug resistance among first-line antiretroviral experienced adults at a rural HIV clinic in coastal Kenya: a cross-sectional study. AIDS Res Ther PR HIV1 group M: 55
RT HIV1 group M: 55

 

2014
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Manasa (2013) High-levels of acquired drug resistance in adult patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy in a rural HIV treatment programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 219
RT HIV1 group M: 222
Khairunisa (2014) Appearance of drug resistance-associated mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase derived from drug-treated Indonesian patients. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 58
RT HIV1 group M: 53
Hardy (2014) Evolution of a novel pathway leading to dolutegravir resistance in a patient harbouring N155H and multiclass drug resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother IN HIV1 group M: 8
de Souza Cavalcanti (2014) High frequency of dolutegravir resistance in patients failing a raltegravir-containing salvage regimen. J Antimicrob Chemother IN HIV1 group M: 92
Stekler (2014) Lack of resistance to integrase inhibitors among antiretroviral-naive subjects with primary HIV-1 infection, 2007-2013. Antivir Ther IN HIV1 group M: 69
Meixenberger (2014) Assessment of ambiguous base calls in HIV-1 pol population sequences as a biomarker for identification of recent infections in HIV-1 incidence studies. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 2203
RT HIV1 group M: 2203
Shcherbakova (2014) Molecular epidemiology, phylogeny, and phylodynamics of CRF63_02A1, a recently originated HIV-1 circulating recombinant form spreading in Siberia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 22
RT HIV1 group M: 22
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Feng (2014) Identification of a novel HIV Type 1 circulating recombinant form (CRF65_cpx) composed of CRF01_AE and subtypes B and C in Western Yunnan, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Guimaraes (2008) Identification of two new CRF_BF in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 7
RT HIV1 group M: 7
IN HIV1 group M: 7
Zhao (2012) CRF22_01A1 is involved in the emergence of new HIV-1 recombinants in Cameroon. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 13
RT HIV1 group M: 13
IN HIV1 group M: 13
Foster (2014) Novel HIV-1 recombinants spreading across multiple risk groups in the United Kingdom: the identification and phylogeography of circulating recombinant form (CRF) 50_A1D. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Liu (2012) Identification of a novel HIV type 1 circulating recombinant form (CRF52_01B) in Southeast Asia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Hsi (2012) Genome sequence of a Novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF64_BC) identified from Yunnan, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 5
Simonetti (2014) Identification of a new HIV-1 BC circulating recombinant form (CRF60_BC) in Italian young men having sex with men. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Chow (2014) A newly emerging HIV-1 recombinant lineage (CRF58_01B) disseminating among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Li (2012) Recombination form and epidemiology of HIV-1 unique recombinant strains identified in Yunnan, China. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 58
RT HIV1 group M: 58
IN HIV1 group M: 58
Wei (2014) Identification of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF62_BC) in western Yunnan of China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Wei (2014) Genome sequence of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF57_BC) identified from Yunnan, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Han (2013) Genome sequences of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form, CRF55_01B, identified in China. Genome Announc PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Zhang (2014) Identification and characterization of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF59_01B) identified among men-who-have-sex-with-men in China PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Chung (2014) Oligonucleotide ligation assay detects HIV drug resistance associated with virologic failure among antiretroviral-naive adults in Kenya. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 48
RT HIV1 group M: 159
Lee (2014) Prevalence and Virologic Consequences of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistance in Uganda. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 572
RT HIV1 group M: 572
Avidor (2013) Transmission patterns of HIV-subtypes A/AE versus B: inferring risk-behavior trends and treatment-efficacy limitations from viral genotypic data obtained prior to and during antiretroviral therapy. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 237
RT HIV1 group M: 237
Lapovok (2014) Molecular epidemiology of HIV-infection in Volga federal district, Russia. unpublished PR HIV1 group M: 67
RT HIV1 group M: 67
Steegen (2014) High-level cross-resistance to didanosine observed in South African children failing an abacavir- or stavudine-based 1st-line regimen. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 353
RT HIV1 group M: 369
Theys (2013) Decreasing population selection rates of resistance mutation K65R over time in HIV-1 patients receiving combination therapy including tenofovir. J Antimicrob Chemother PR HIV1 group M: 263
RT HIV1 group M: 263
Theys (2013) HIV-1 subtype is an independent predictor of reverse transcriptase mutation K65R in HIV-1 patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy including tenofovir. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 3059
Kolomeets (2014) A uniquely prevalent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutation in Russian subtype A HIV-1 viruses. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 193
RT HIV1 group M: 193
Totmenin (2013) Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Siberia, Russia. unpublished PR HIV1 group M: 225
RT HIV1 group M: 225
Rumyantseva (2009) Epidemiological networks and drug resistance of HIV type 1 in Krasnoyarsk region, Russia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 80
RT HIV1 group M: 80
Baryshev (2013) HIV-1 genetic diversity in Russia: CRF63_02A1, a new HIV type 1 genetic variant spreading in Siberia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 14
RT HIV1 group M: 14
IN HIV1 group M: 14
Paraskevis (2009) Increasing prevalence of HIV-1 subtype A in Greece: estimating epidemic history and origin. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 983
RT HIV1 group M: 1019
Nouhin (2013) Increased risk of Q151M and K65R mutations in patients failing stavudine-containing first-line antiretroviral therapy in Cambodia. PLoS ONE RT HIV1 group M: 520
Charpentier (2011) Virological failure and HIV type 1 drug resistance profiles among patients followed-up in private sector, Douala, Cameroon. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 54
RT HIV1 group M: 56
Kouri (2012) High frequency of antiviral drug resistance and non-B subtypes in HIV-1 patients failing antiviral therapy in Cuba. J Clin Virol PR HIV1 group M: 278
RT HIV1 group M: 278
Aghokeng (2013) Virological outcome and patterns of HIV-1 drug resistance in patients with 36 months' antiretroviral therapy experience in Cameroon. J Int AIDS Soc PR HIV1 group M: 65
RT HIV1 group M: 65
Nerrienet (2014) HIV-1 protease inhibitors resistance profiles patients virological failure LPV/r based 2nd line regimen Cambodia. unpublished PR HIV1 group M: 71
RT HIV1 group M: 83
IN HIV1 group M: 24
Pircher (2013) Molecular characterization of HIV type 1 in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, and first data on resistance to antiretroviral drugs. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 89
RT HIV1 group M: 77
Kebe (2013) High rate of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in HIV type 1 infected Senegalese children in virological failure on first-line treatment according to the World Health Organization guidelines. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 52
RT HIV1 group M: 52
Liu (2011) Drug resistance and HCV coinfection in former blood donors infected with HIV type 1 in China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 63
RT HIV1 group M: 63
Chikata (2014) Host-specific adaptation of HIV-1 subtype B in the Japanese population. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 363
RT HIV1 group M: 360
IN HIV1 group M: 363
Fourati (2012) E138K and M184I mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase coemerge as a result of APOBEC3 editing in the absence of drug exposure. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 601
Diallo (2015) Viral genetic diversity and polymorphisms in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients eligible for initiation of antiretroviral therapy in Abuja, Nigeria. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses PR HIV1 group M: 271
RT HIV1 group M: 271
Bartolo (2014) HIV-1 diversity, transmission dynamics and primary drug resistance in Angola. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 140
RT HIV1 group M: 140
Hoffmann (2013) Resistance to tenofovir-based regimens during treatment failure of subtype C HIV-1 in South Africa. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 52
RT HIV1 group M: 52
Inzaule (2013) Field evaluation of a broadly sensitive HIV-1 in-house genotyping assay for use with both plasma and dried blood spot specimens in a resource-limited country. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 59
RT HIV1 group M: 59
Capel (2013) Significant changes in integrase-associated HIV-1 replication capacity between early and late isolates. Virology IN HIV1 group M: 94
Dvali (2012) Characterization of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance mutations among individuals infected with HIV in Georgia. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 153
RT HIV1 group M: 153
Niama (2006) HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants in the Republic of Congo. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 50
RT HIV1 group M: 50
Thiam (2013) HIV-1 genetic diversity and drug resistance among Senegalese patients in the public health system. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 72
RT HIV1 group M: 72
Pyne (2013) Large-scale analysis of the prevalence and geographic distribution of HIV-1 non-B variants in the United States. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 798
RT HIV1 group M: 798
Nii-Trebi (2013) HIV-1 drug-resistance surveillance among treatment-experienced and -naive patients after the implementation of antiretroviral therapy in Ghana. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 101
RT HIV1 group M: 101
Rusine (2013) Low primary and secondary HIV drug-resistance after 12 months of antiretroviral therapy in human immune-deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals from Kigali, Rwanda. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 119
RT HIV1 group M: 119
Rawizza (2013) Accumulation of protease mutations among patients failing second-line antiretroviral therapy and response to salvage therapy in Nigeria. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 55
RT HIV1 group M: 55
Sigaloff (2013) Short communication: high rates of thymidine analogue mutations and dual-class resistance among HIV-infected Ugandan children failing first-line antiretroviral therapy. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 44
RT HIV1 group M: 44
Abecasis (2007) Recombination confounds the early evolutionary history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: subtype G is a circulating recombinant form. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Afonso (2012) HIV-1 genetic diversity and transmitted drug resistance mutations among patients from the North, Central and South regions of Angola. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 99
RT HIV1 group M: 101
Monno (2005) HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) from HIV-infected patients residing in two regions of central and southern Italy. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 43
RT HIV1 group M: 44
Hattori (2010) Trends in transmitted drug-resistant HIV-1 and demographic characteristics of newly diagnosed patients: nationwide surveillance from 2003 to 2008 in Japan. Antiviral Res PR HIV1 group M: 1906
RT HIV1 group M: 1920
Grossman (2014) Comparable long-term efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir and similar drug-resistance profiles in different HIV-1 subtypes. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 303
RT HIV1 group M: 303
Billong (2013) Population-based monitoring of emerging HIV-1 drug resistance on antiretroviral therapy and associated factors in a sentinel site in Cameroon: low levels of resistance but poor programmatic performance. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 146
RT HIV1 group M: 146
Leye (2013) High frequency of HIV-1 infections with multiple HIV-1 strains in men having sex with men (MSM) in Senegal. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 70
RT HIV1 group M: 70
Somda (2012) Surveillance of transmitted drug-resistant HIV among young pregnant women in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 48
RT HIV1 group M: 48
Bila (2013) Evolution of primary HIV drug resistance in a subtype C dominated epidemic in Mozambique. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 265
RT HIV1 group M: 253
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Imade (2013) Transmitted HIV drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive pregnant women in north central Nigeria. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 34
RT HIV1 group M: 34
Kotaki (2013) Detection of drug resistance-associated mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase derived from drug-naive individuals in Surabaya, Indonesia. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 43
Puthanakit (2010) HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in children after failure of first-line nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med RT HIV1 group M: 72
Antoniadou (2013) Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 infection in northern Greece (2009-2010): evidence of a transmission cluster of HIV type 1 subtype A1 drug-resistant strains among men who have sex with men. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 98
RT HIV1 group M: 98
Hunt (2012) Surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces, South Africa, 2005-2009. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 264
RT HIV1 group M: 345
Kiptoo (2013) HIV-1 drug resistance-associated mutations among hiv-1 infected drug-naive antenatal clinic attendees in rural Kenya. BMC Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 188
RT HIV1 group M: 188
Leoz (2013) Characterization of CRF56_cpx, a new circulating B/CRF02/G recombinant form identified in MSM in France. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Ong (2013) Molecular diversity of HIV-1 and surveillance of transmitted drug resistance variants among treatment naive patients, 5 years after active introduction of HAART in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 100
RT HIV1 group M: 100
Smolen-Dzirba (2013) Transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants among individuals with recent infection in southern Poland. Curr HIV Res PR HIV1 group M: 53
RT HIV1 group M: 54
Kiertiburanakul (2013) Comparisons of primary HIV-1 drug resistance between recent and chronic HIV-1 infection within a sub-regional cohort of Asian patients. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 1782
RT HIV1 group M: 1791

 

2013
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Brooks (2013) Local phylogenetic analysis identifies distinct trends in transmitted HIV drug resistance: implications for public health interventions. BMC Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 274
RT HIV1 group M: 274
Sunpath (2013) High rate of K65R for antiretroviral therapy-naive patients with subtype C HIV infection failing a tenofovir-containing first-line regimen. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 38
RT HIV1 group M: 38
Heipertz (2013) Molecular epidemiology of early and acute HIV type 1 infections in the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 2005-2010. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 40
RT HIV1 group M: 40
Mulu (2015) Clade homogeneity and Pol gene polymorphisms in chronically HIV-1 infected antiretroviral treatment naive patients after the roll out of ART in Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 149
RT HIV1 group M: 154
Xu (2013) Role of the K101E substitution in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in resistance to rilpivirine and other nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 5
Stanojevic (2014) Ten years survey of primary HIV-1 resistance in Serbia - occurrence of multiclass resistance. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 177
RT HIV1 group M: 176
Zeng (2013) HIV-1 genotypic diversity and prevalence of drug resistance among treatment naive HIV-infected individuals in Chengdu of China. Virus Genes PR HIV1 group M: 159
RT HIV1 group M: 159
Avi (2013) Transmitted drug resistance is still low in newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF06_cpx-infected patients in Estonia in 2010. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 244
RT HIV1 group M: 244
Lunar (2013) Prevalence of HIV type 1 transmitted drug resistance in Slovenia: 2005-2010. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 145
RT HIV1 group M: 145
Haddad (2013) Combinations of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutations L100I+K103N/S and L100I+K103R+V179D reduce susceptibility to rilpivirine. Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents an RT HIV1 group M: 8
Mollan (2012) HIV-1 amino acid changes among participants with virologic failure: associations with first-line efavirenz or atazanavir plus ritonavir and disease status. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 521
RT HIV1 group M: 522
Chow (2013) Molecular diversity of HIV-1 among people who inject drugs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: massive expansion of circulating recombinant form (CRF) 33_01B and emergence of multiple unique recombinant clusters. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 114
RT HIV1 group M: 112
Li (2013) Relatively high prevalence of drug resistance among antiretroviral-naive patients from Henan, central China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 98
RT HIV1 group M: 98
IN HIV1 group M: 98
Bao (2008) Molecular tracing of sexual HIV Type 1 transmission in the southwest border of China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 44
RT HIV1 group M: 44
Li (2013) Subtype CRF01_AE dominate the sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 epidemic in Guangxi, China. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 211
RT HIV1 group M: 211
IN HIV1 group M: 211
Li (2013) Genome sequences of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF61_BC) identified among heterosexuals in China. Genome Announc PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Han (2013) Genome sequences of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF59_01B) identified among men who have sex with men in northeastern China. Genome Announc PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Masimba (2013) Prevalence of drug-resistance mutations and HIV-1 subtypes in a HIV-1 infected cohort in rural Tanzania. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 13
RT HIV1 group M: 226
Huang (2013) Multiple genetic pathways involving amino acid position 143 of HIV-1 integrase are preferentially associated with specific secondary amino acid substitutions and confer resistance to raltegravir and cross-resistance to elvitegravir. AAC IN HIV1 group M: 72
Porter (2014) Characterization of HIV-1 drug resistance development through week 48 in antiretroviral naive subjects on rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF or efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF in the STaR study (GS-US-264-0110) JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 35
RT HIV1 group M: 35
Wilantho A (2011) HIV-1 integrase isolated from infected patients in Thailand. GenBank Submission IN HIV1 group M: 167
Jahanbakhsh (2012) Prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Iran between 2010 and 2011. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 47
RT HIV1 group M: 47
IN HIV1 group M: 47
Melikian (2013) Nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI) cross-resistance: implications for preclinical evaluation of novel NNRTIs and clinical genotypic resistance testing. J Antimicrob Chemother RT HIV1 group M: 69
Armenia (2012) Study of genotypic and phenotypic HIV-1 dynamics of integrase mutations during raltegravir treatment: A refined analysis by ultra-deep 454 pyrosequencing. J Infect Dis IN HIV1 group M: 40
Kemal (2013) Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 subtypes in Rwanda. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 30
RT HIV1 group M: 30
Han (2013) High prevalence of HIV-1 intersubtype BC recombinants among injecting drug users in Dehong, China. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 95
RT HIV1 group M: 95
Van Eygen (2012) Comparison of the Antivirogram and PhenoSense assays to determine phenotypic susceptibility to rilpivirine in patient samples from the Phase III ECHO and THRIVE trials. International Workshop on HIV & Hepatitis Virus RT HIV1 group M: 28
Akrim (2012) HIV-1 subtype distribution in Morocco based on national sentinel surveillance data 2004-2005. AIDS Res Ther PR HIV1 group M: 58
RT HIV1 group M: 49
Wu (2013) New emerging recombinant HIV-1 strains and close transmission linkage of HIV-1 strains in the Chinese MSM population indicate a new epidemic risk. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 133
RT HIV1 group M: 133
IN HIV1 group M: 9
Aulicino (2011) Longitudinal analysis of HIV-1 BF1 recombinant strains in vertically infected children from Argentina reveals a decrease in CRF12_BF pol gene mosaic patterns and high diversity of BF unique recombinant forms. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 194
RT HIV1 group M: 194
Zeng (2012) Emergence of a new HIV type 1 CRF01_AE variant in Guangxi, southern China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 221
RT HIV1 group M: 222
IN HIV1 group M: 224
Reigadas (2013) HIV-1 integrase variability and relationship with drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive and -experienced patients with different HIV-1 subtypes. J Antimicrob Chemother IN HIV1 group M: 554
Kousiappa (2011) Molecular characterization of HIV type 1 strains from newly diagnosed patients in Cyprus (2007-2009) recovers multiple clades including unique recombinant strains and lack of transmitted drug resistance. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 74
RT HIV1 group M: 74
IN HIV1 group M: 74
Castro (2010) HIV-1 drug resistance transmission networks in southwest Switzerland. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 30
RT HIV1 group M: 30
Malet (2011) The HIV-1 integrase G118R mutation confers raltegravir resistance to the CRF02_AG HIV-1 subtype. J Antimicrob Chemother IN HIV1 group M: 2
Mesplede (2013) Viral fitness cost prevents HIV-1 from evading dolutegravir drug pressure. Retrovirology IN HIV1 group M: 3
Oliveira (2012) Genetic diversity and naturally polymorphisms in HIV type 1 integrase isolates from Maputo, Mozambique: Implications for integrase inhibitors. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 57
Monleau (2012) Drug resistance mutations of HIV type 1 non-B viruses to integrase inhibitors in treatment-naive patients from sub-saharan countries and discordant interpretations. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 97
Luu (2012) HIV type 1 coreceptor tropism, CCR5 genotype, and integrase inhibitor resistance profiles in Vietnam: Implications for the introduction of new antiretroviral regimens. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 54
Kim (2011) Genetic variation of the HIV-1 integrase region in newly diagnosed anti-retroviral drug-naive patients with HIV/AIDS in Korea. Clin Microbiol Infect IN HIV1 group M: 75
Iamarino (2012) BF integrase genes of HIV-1 circulating in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a recurrent recombination region. PLoS ONE IN HIV1 group M: 157
Canducci (2011) Cross-resistance profile of the novel integrase inhibitor Dolutegravir (S/GSK1349572) using clonal viral variants selected in patients failing raltegravir. J Infect Dis IN HIV1 group M: 38
Brockman (2012) Uncommon pathways of immune escape attenuate HIV-1 integrase replication capacity. J Virol IN HIV1 group M: 88
Van Wesenbeeck (2011) Cross-resistance profile determination of two second-generation HIV-1 integrase inhibitors using a panel of recombinant viruses derived from raltegravir-treated clinical isolates. AAC IN HIV1 group M: 11
Brenner (2011) Subtype diversity associated with the development of HIV-1 resistance to integrase inhibitors. J Med Virol IN HIV1 group M: 157
Bessong (2013) Genetic analysis of HIV-1 integrase sequences from treatment naive individuals in northeastern South Africa. Int J Mol Sci IN HIV1 group M: 88
Gatanaga (2010) Combination of V106I and V179D polymorphic mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase confers resistance to efavirenz and nevirapine but not etravirine. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 5
Coetzer (2013) Extensive drug resistance in HIV-infected Cambodian children who are undetected as failing first-Line antiretroviral therapy by WHO 2010 guidelines. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 58
Chen (2013) HIV-1 genotypes and drug resistance threshold survey in Honghe Prefecture of Yunnan Province in 2011 Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 41
RT HIV1 group M: 41
Kijak (2013) HIV-1 prevalence and subtype distribution in HIV-1 positive volunteers deferred from enrollment in a phase III prime-boost HIV-1 vaccine trial in Thailand J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 42
RT HIV1 group M: 42
IN HIV1 group M: 42
Brown (2009) Phylogenetic reconstruction of transmission events from individuals with acute HIV infection J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 165
RT HIV1 group M: 165
Ferreira (2013) Transmitted drug resistance among people living with HIV/AIDS at major cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Adv Virol PR HIV1 group M: 224
RT HIV1 group M: 224
Alencar (2013) HIV genotypes and primary drug resistance among HIV seropositive blood donors in Brazil: Role of infected blood donors as sentinel populations for molecular surveillance of HIV. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 300
RT HIV1 group M: 300
Chow (2012) Genome sequences of a novel HIV-1 CRF53_01B identified in Malaysia J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Ng (2012) Genome sequence of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form 54_01B from Malaysia J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Holguin (2013) Transmitted drug-resistance in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adult population in El Salvador, Central America. Clin Microbiol Infect. PR HIV1 group M: 70
RT HIV1 group M: 88
Rolland (2011) Genetic impact of vaccination on breakthrough HIV-1 sequences from the STEP trial Nat Med PR HIV1 group M: 67
RT HIV1 group M: 67
IN HIV1 group M: 68
Frentz (2013) Limited cross-border infections in patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Europe. Retrovirology PR HIV1 group M: 1621
RT HIV1 group M: 1630
Tramuto (2013) Dynamics and molecular evolution of HIV-1 strains in Sicily among antiretroviral naive patients. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 155
RT HIV1 group M: 155
Selimova (2010) HIV-1 pol gene subtypes isolated from drug-naive individuals in Russia. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 44
RT HIV1 group M: 44
Temereanca (2013) Transmitted HIV drug resistance in newly diagnosed, treatment-naive Romanian patients. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 61
RT HIV1 group M: 61
Caron (2012) Prevalence, genetic diversity and antiretroviral drugs resistance-associated mutations among untreated HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa. BMC Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 105
RT HIV1 group M: 97
Ssemwanga (2012) Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance among drug-naive female sex workers with recent infection in Kampala, Uganda. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 40
RT HIV1 group M: 40
Ye (2011) Sequence analysis of the gag-pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 of intersubtype (B/C) recombinant strain in Beijing, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 39
RT HIV1 group M: 39
Li (2012) Screening for and verification of novel mutations associated with drug resistance in the HIV type 1 subtype B(') in China PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 638
RT HIV1 group M: 729
Pariente (2004) Long-term suppression of plasma viremia with highly active antiretroviral therapy despite virus evolution and very limited selection of drug-resistant genotypes. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 56
RT HIV1 group M: 56
Florea (2011) HIV transmitted drug resistance in Romania 2007-2010 Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 65
RT HIV1 group M: 65
Holguin (2008) Increase of non-B subtypes and recombinants among newly diagnosed HIV-1 native Spaniards and immigrants in Spain. Curr HIV Res PR HIV1 group M: 344
RT HIV1 group M: 335
Wang (2009) Protective HLA class I alleles that restrict acute-phase CD8+ T-cell responses are associated with viral escape mutations located in highly conserved regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 91
RT HIV1 group M: 91
IN HIV1 group M: 91
Han (2010) Genetic and epidemiologic characterization of HIV-1 infection In Liaoning Province, China. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 159
RT HIV1 group M: 141
Yebra (2009) Clinical differences and viral diversity between newly HIV type 1-diagnosed African and non-African patients in Spain (2005-2007). ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 63
RT HIV1 group M: 59
Parreira (2006) Genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from Beira, Mozambique Microbes Infect PR HIV1 group M: 43
RT HIV1 group M: 43
Yerly (2004) HIV-1 co/super-infection in intravenous drug users AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 57
Santos (2011) Primary HIV-1 drug resistance in the C-terminal domains of viral reverse transcriptase among drug-naive patients from southern Brazil J Clin Virol PR HIV1 group M: 141
RT HIV1 group M: 88
Miura (2008) Genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in elite controllers: Lack of gross genetic defects or common amino acid changes. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 41
RT HIV1 group M: 41
IN HIV1 group M: 39
Nadai (2009) HIV-1 epidemic in the Caribbean is dominated by subtype B. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 67
RT HIV1 group M: 67
IN HIV1 group M: 15
Rolland (2012) Increased HIV-1 vaccine efficacy against viruses with genetic signatures in Env V2 Nature PR HIV1 group M: 121
RT HIV1 group M: 121
IN HIV1 group M: 121
Nazziwa (2012) HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance and evidence of transmission clusters among recently infected antiretroviral naive individuals from Ugandan fishing communities of Lake Victoria ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 48
RT HIV1 group M: 46
Li (2013) Genetic characterization and transmitted drug resistance of the HIV type 1 epidemic in men who have sex with men in Beijing, China ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 76
RT HIV1 group M: 76
IN HIV1 group M: 76
Hawke (2013) HIV non-B subtype distribution: Emerging trends and risk factors for imported and local infections newly diagnosed in South Australia ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 424
RT HIV1 group M: 421
Chen (2012) Genetic diversity and drug resistance among newly diagnosed and antiretroviral treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in western Yunnan: A hot area of viral recombination in China BMC Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 299
RT HIV1 group M: 299
An (2012) Reconstituting the epidemic history of HIV strain CRF01_AE among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Liaoning, northeastern China: Implications for the expanding epidemic among MSM in China J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 39
RT HIV1 group M: 39
IN HIV1 group M: 39
Sato (2006) In vitro selection of mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase that confer resistance to capravirine, a novel nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Antiviral Res RT HIV1 group M: 26
Jones (2012) Drug resistance mutations in HIV pol sequences from Argentinean patients under antiretroviral treatment: subtype, gender, and age issues. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2016
RT HIV1 group M: 2016
Parczewski (2012) HIV-1 integrase resistance among antiretroviral treatment naive and experienced patients from northwestern Poland. BMC Infect Dis IN HIV1 group M: 112
Murillo (2012) Prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance among female sex workers and men who have sex with men in El Salvador, Central America. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 119
RT HIV1 group M: 119
Villena (2007) Relative fitness and replication capacity of a multinucleoside analogue-resistant clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate with a deletion of codon 69 in the reverse transcriptase coding region. J Virol RT HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 2
Trinh (2012) Short communication: Drug resistance mutations in the HIV type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase genes in antiretroviral-naive Vietnamese children. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 76
RT HIV1 group M: 75
Soria (2012) Transmitted HIV resistance to first-line antiretroviral therapy in Lima, Peru. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 37
da Silveira (2012) HIV type 1 molecular epidemiology in pol and gp41 genes among naive patients from Mato Grosso do Sul State, central western Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 49
RT HIV1 group M: 49
Brennan (2010) Expanded evaluation of blood donors in the United States for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 non-B subtypes and antiretroviral drug-resistant strains: 2005 through 2007. Transfusion PR HIV1 group M: 203
RT HIV1 group M: 203
Underwood (2012) The activity of the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir against HIV-1 variants isolated from raltegravir-treated adults. JAIDS IN HIV1 group M: 21
IN HIV1 group M: 13
Rhee (2010) HIV-1 protease mutations and protease inhibitor cross resistance. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 779
Gatanaga (2007) Drug-resistant HIV-1 prevalence in patients newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in Japan Antiviral Res PR HIV1 group M: 491
RT HIV1 group M: 473
Holguin (2007) Introduction of non-B subtypes among Spaniards newly diagnosed with HIV type 1 in the Canary Islands. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 148
RT HIV1 group M: 148
Rhee (2009) Predictive value of HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation algorithms. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 734
RT HIV1 group M: 720
Rhee (2005) HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase mutations: Correlations with antiretroviral therapy in subtype B isolates and implications for drug-resistance surveillance. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 8698
RT HIV1 group M: 8939
Winters (1997) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase genotype and drug susceptibility changes in infected individuals receiving dideoxyinosine monotherapy for 1 to 2 years. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 25
RT HIV1 group M: 46

 

2012
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Souza Cavalcanti (2012) In-vivo selection of the mutation F121Y in a patient failing raltegravir containing salvage regimen Antiviral Res IN HIV1 group M: 4
Descamps (2010) Increasing prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations and non-B subtype circulation in antiretroviral-naive chronically HIV-infected patients from 2001 to 2006/2007 in France J Antimicrob Chemother RT HIV1 group M: 465
Telan (2013) Possible HIV transmission modes among at-risk groups at an early epidemic stage in the Philippines. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 174
RT HIV1 group M: 174
Brehm (2012) Frequent emergence of N348I in HIV-1 subtype C reverse transcriptase with failure of initial therapy reduces susceptibility to reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. Clin Infect Dis RT HIV1 group M: 138
Telan (2011) The early phase of an HIV epidemic in a population exposed previously to HCV in the Philippines. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 22
RT HIV1 group M: 22
Avila-Rios (2012) National prevalence and trends of HIV transmitted drug resistance in Mexico PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 1648
RT HIV1 group M: 1639
Machado (2012) Transmitted HIV yype 1 drug resistance in newly diagnosed Cuban patients. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 199
RT HIV1 group M: 199
Lee (2012) Prolonged and substantial discordance in prevalence of raltegravir-resistant HIV-1 in plasma versus pbmc samples revealed by 454 PLoS ONE IN HIV1 group M: 8
Varghese (2012) Panel of Prototypical Recombinant Multi-Protease Inhibitor Resistant Infectious Molecular Clones unpublished PR HIV1 group M: 17
El Annaz (2012) Drug resistance mutations in HIV type 1 isolates from patients failing antiretroviral therapy in Morocco. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 45
RT HIV1 group M: 45
Gaspareto (2012) Genetic diversity and primary resistance among HIV-1-positive patients from Maringa, Parana, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo PR HIV1 group M: 48
RT HIV1 group M: 48
Ragonnet-Cronin (2012) Genetic diversity as a marker for timing infection in HIV-infected patients: Evaluation of a 6-month window and comparison with BED. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 1308
RT HIV1 group M: 1308
Dennis (2012) Phylogenetic insights into HIV transmission in North Carolina. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 1238
RT HIV1 group M: 1238
Hingankar (2012) Initial virologic response and HIV drug resistance among HIV-infected individuals initiating first-line antiretroviral therapy at 2 clinics in Chennai and Mumbai, India. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 96
RT HIV1 group M: 96
Ragonnet-Cronin (2012) Adaptive evolution of HIV at HLA epitopes is associated with ethnicity in Canada PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 1797
RT HIV1 group M: 1797
Dagnra (2011) High prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance among patients on first-line antiretroviral treatment in Lome, Togo. J Int AIDS Soc PR HIV1 group M: 46
RT HIV1 group M: 46
von Wyl (2010) HIV-1 reverse transcriptase connection domain mutations: dynamics of emergence and implications for success of combination antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 57
RT HIV1 group M: 68
Luebbert (2012) Virological failure and drug resistance in patients on antiretroviral therapy after treatment interruption in Lilongwe, Malawi. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 32
RT HIV1 group M: 6
Fokam (2011) Drug resistance among drug-naive and first-line antiretroviral treatment-failing children in Cameroon. Pediatr Infect Dis J PR HIV1 group M: 80
RT HIV1 group M: 80
Reynolds (2012) Antiretroviral drug susceptibility among HIV-infected adults failing antiretroviral therapy in Rakai, Uganda. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 73
RT HIV1 group M: 73
Ssemwanga (2012) Low drug resistance levels among drug-naive individuals with recent HIV-1 infection in a rural clinical cohort in southwestern Uganda. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 72
RT HIV1 group M: 72
Frange (2012) Recent HIV-1 infection contributes to the viral diffusion over the French territory with a recent increasing frequency. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 7
RT HIV1 group M: 989
Garrido (2012) Broad phenotypic cross-resistance to elvitegravir in HIV-infected patients failing on raltegravir-containing regimens. AAC IN HIV1 group M: 61
Abram (2013) Effect of primary elvitegravir resistance mutations in HIV-1 integrase on drug susceptibility and viral replication fitness. AAC IN HIV1 group M: 20
Li (2012) The in vitro cross-resistance profile of the NRTI BMS-986001 against known NRTI resistance mutations IWHHVDR 2012 RT HIV1 group M: 20
Hassan (2013) Low prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance amongst ARV naive adults in a rural HIV clinic in Kenya. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 211
RT HIV1 group M: 211
Haddad (2011) Mutation Y188L of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is strongly associated with reduced susceptibility to rilpivirine CROI 2012 RT HIV1 group M: 1
Sigaloff (2012) High prevalence of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance among newly HIV type 1 diagnosed adults in Mombasa, Kenya. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 71
RT HIV1 group M: 72
Musyoki (2012) Genetic characterization of HIV before widespread testing of HIV vaccine candidates at a clinical trial site in Pretoria, South Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 25
RT HIV1 group M: 25
Margot (2012) In vitro resistance selections using elvitegravir, raltegravir, and two metabolites of elvitegravir M1 and M4 Antiviral Res IN HIV1 group M: 19
Sinha (2012) Prevalence of HIV drug resistance mutations in HIV type 1 isolates in antiretroviral therapy naive population from northern India. AIDS Res Treatm PR HIV1 group M: 31
RT HIV1 group M: 31
Tran (2012) No increase of drug-resistant HIV type 1 prevalence among drug-naive individuals in northern Vietnam. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 107
RT HIV1 group M: 102
Yang (2012) Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance and thumb subdomain polymorphisms among newly HIV-1 diagnosed patients infected with CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC virus in Guangdong Province, China ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 119
RT HIV1 group M: 119
Melikian (2012) Standardized comparison of the relative impacts of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations on nucleoside RT inhibitor susceptibility. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 1745
RT HIV1 group M: 51
De Gascun (2012) Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Ireland: Phylogenetic Evidence for Risk Group-Specific Subepidemics. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 824
RT HIV1 group M: 824
Gupta (2011) Connection domain mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase do not impact etravirine susceptibility and virologic responses to etravirine-containing regimens AAC RT HIV1 group M: 44
Ngo-Giang-Huong (2011) Resistance patterns selected by nevirapine vs. efavirenz in HIV-infected patients failing first-line antiretroviral treatment: A bayesian analysis. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 32
RT HIV1 group M: 121
Margot (2006) Resistance development over 144 weeks in treatment-naive patients receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or stavudine with lamivudine and efavirenz in Study 903 HIV Med RT HIV1 group M: 124
Lazaro (2011) Molecular characterization of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Mekong Delta, Vietnam, and impact of T-cell epitope mutations on HLA recognition (ANRS 12159). PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 96
RT HIV1 group M: 95
Dean (2011) Prevalence of HIV type 1 antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in Vietnam: A multicenter study. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 92
RT HIV1 group M: 92
Karlsson (2012) Low prevalence of transmitted drug resistance in patients newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection in Sweden 2003-2010. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 208
RT HIV1 group M: 208
Sanabani (2011) Characterization of partial and near full-length genomes of HIV-1 strains sampled from recently infected individuals in Sao Paulo, Brazil. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 51
RT HIV1 group M: 50
IN HIV1 group M: 51
Aghokeng (2011) High failure rate of the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system for drug resistance testing in Cameroon, a country with broad HIV-1 genetic diversity J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 145
RT HIV1 group M: 145
Germanaud (2010) Level of viral load and antiretroviral resistance after 6 months of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor first-line treatment in HIV-1-infected children in Mali AAC PR HIV1 group M: 29
RT HIV1 group M: 30
Podzamczer (2002) A randomized clinical trial comparing nelfinavir or nevirapine associated to zidovudine/lamivudine in HIV-infected naive patients (the Combine Study). Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 102
RT HIV1 group M: 102
Nwobegahay (2011) Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations and HIV-I subtypes among newly-diagnosed drug-naive persons visiting a voluntary testing and counselling centre in northeastern South Africa. J Health Popul Nutr PR HIV1 group M: 54
RT HIV1 group M: 54
Youngpairoj (2012) Prevalence of drug resistance-related polymorphisms in treatment-naive individuals infected with nonsubtype B HIV type 1 in Cameroon. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 57
RT HIV1 group M: 57
Fernandez-Garcia (2012) The analysis of near full-length genome sequences of HIV-1 subtype A viruses from Russia supports the monophyly of major intrasubtype clusters. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 10
RT HIV1 group M: 10
IN HIV1 group M: 10
Barber (2012) Frequency and patterns of protease gene resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir as their first protease inhibitor. J Antimicrob Chemother PR HIV1 group M: 31
RT HIV1 group M: 31
Charpentier (2011) Virological response and resistance profiles after 18 to 30 months of first- or second-/third-line antiretroviral treatment: A cross-sectional evaluation in HIV type 1-infected children living in the Central African Republic. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 69
RT HIV1 group M: 69
Ferradini (2011) High efficacy of lopinavir/r-based second-line antiretroviral treatment after 24 months of follow up at ESTHER/Calmette Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. J Int AIDS Soc PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 43
Zeng (2011) The human immunodeficiency virus-1 genotype diversity and drug resistance mutations profile of volunteer blood donors from Chinese blood centers. Transfusion PR HIV1 group M: 113
RT HIV1 group M: 113
Ye (2011) The prevalence of drug resistance mutations among treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in Beijing, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 139
RT HIV1 group M: 139
Hamers (2011) HIV-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa after rollout of antiretroviral therapy: A multicentre observational study. Lancet PR HIV1 group M: 2474
RT HIV1 group M: 2473
Delwart (2012) Genetic diversity of recently acquired and prevalent HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in US blood donors. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 319
RT HIV1 group M: 319
Aghokeng (2011) Scale-up of antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa is accompanied by increasing HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in drug-naive patients. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 206
RT HIV1 group M: 206
Green (2011) Drug resistance and coreceptor usage in HIV type 1 subtype C-infected children initiating or failing highly active antiretroviral therapy in south Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 54
RT HIV1 group M: 54
Dau (2010) Connection domain mutations in treatment-experienced patients in the OPTIMA trial. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 420
RT HIV1 group M: 420
Duc (2012) Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance using matched plasma and dried blood spot specimens from voluntary counseling and testing sites in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2007-2008 Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 73
RT HIV1 group M: 73
Kamoto (2008) Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance with the World Health Organization threshold survey method in Lilongwe, Malawi. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 53
RT HIV1 group M: 53
Yang (2011) Global surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in PEPFAR-supported countries using a broadly sensitive genotyping assay CROI 2011 PR HIV1 group M: 38
RT HIV1 group M: 38
Bussmann (2011) Prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Botswana: Lessons learned from the HIVDR-threshold survey conducted among women presenting for routine antenatal care as part of the 2007 national sentinel survey. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 152
RT HIV1 group M: 152
Serrano (2012) Low transmitted drug resistance and high viral genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains circulating in young pregnant women recently diagnosed with HIV-1 infection in Luada, Angola ASLM 2012 PR HIV1 group M: 39
RT HIV1 group M: 39
Varghese (2011) Phenotypic evidence for NRTI resistance in HIV-1 isolates with the RT mutation K64H. Unpublished RT HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
Kulkarni (2012) The HIV-1 reverse transcriptase M184I mutation enhances the E138K-associated resistance to rilpivirine and decreases viral fitness. JAIDS RT HIV1 group M: 6
Hu (2007) Virologic characterization of HIV type 1 with a codon 70 deletion in reverse transcriptase. JAIDS RT HIV1 group M: 6
Truong (2011) Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 342
RT HIV1 group M: 342
Balamane (2012) Panel of prototypical recombinant infectious molecular clones resistant to nevirapine, efavirenz, etravirine, and rilpivirine. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 10
Tambuyzer (2009) Compilation and prevalence of mutations associated with resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Antivir Ther RT HIV1 group M: 40
Ragonnet-Cronin (2010) Longitudinal phylogenetic surveillance identifies distinct patterns of cluster dynamics. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 875
RT HIV1 group M: 875
Gonzalez (2010) Short communication: Antiretroviral therapy resistance mutations present in the HIV type 1 subtype C pol and env regions from therapy-naive patients in Zambia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 122
RT HIV1 group M: 122
Zarandia (2006) HIV-1 genetic diversity and genotypic drug susceptibility in the Republic of Georgia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 48
RT HIV1 group M: 48
IN HIV1 group M: 5

 

2011
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Bunupuradah (2011) Etravirine and rilpivirine resistance in HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE-infected adults failing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 215
Manasa (2011) Primary drug resistance in South Africa - data from 20 years of surveys. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 71
RT HIV1 group M: 71
Ferreira (2011) Moderate prevalence of transmitted drug resistance and high HIV-1 genetic diversity in patients from Mato Grosso State, Central Western Brazil. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 92
RT HIV1 group M: 92
Sigaloff (2011) Unnecessary antiretroviral treatment switches and accumulation of HIV resistance mutations; two arguments for viral load monitoring in Africa. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 183
RT HIV1 group M: 183
Sigaloff (2011) Accumulation of HIV drug resistance mutations in patients failing first-line antiretroviral treatment in South Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 69
RT HIV1 group M: 69
Kagan (2009) Additional HIV-1 mutation patterns associated with reduced phenotypic susceptibility to etravirine in clinical samples. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 14
Wang (2008) Identification of subtype B, multiple circulating recombinant forms and unique recombinants of HIV type 1 in an MSM cohort in China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 36
RT HIV1 group M: 36
Su (2011) HIV-1 subtypes based on the pol gene and drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral-naive patients from Guangxi, Southern China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 124
RT HIV1 group M: 124
Chibo (2011) HIV transmissions during seroconversion contribute significantly to new infections in men who have sex with men in Australia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 209
RT HIV1 group M: 209
Ajoge (2012) Drug resistance pattern of HIV type 1 isolates sampled in 2007 from therapy-naive pregnant women in north-central Nigeria. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 28
RT HIV1 group M: 28
Riddler (2008) Class-sparing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med PR HIV1 group M: 230
RT HIV1 group M: 293
Li (2011) High prevalence of HIV type 1 subtype B' among heterosexuals in western Hubei, Central China: Bridging the epidemic into the general population. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 62
RT HIV1 group M: 33
Ng (2011) Identification of New CRF51_01B in Singapore using full genome analysis of three HIV type 1 isolates. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Tshabalala (2011) Surveillance of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-1 infected women attending antenatal clinics in Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe. PLoS ONE RT HIV1 group M: 206
Graf (2011) HIV-1 genetic diversity and drug resistance among treatment naive patients from southern Brazil: An association of HIV-1 subtypes with exposure categories. J Clin Virol PR HIV1 group M: 82
RT HIV1 group M: 82
IN HIV1 group M: 81
van Zyl (2011) Antiretroviral resistance patterns and factors associated with resistance in adult patients failing NNRTI-based regimens in the western cape, South Africa. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 163
RT HIV1 group M: 167
Deshpande (2009) Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase sequences from 382 patients recruited in JJ Hospital of Mumbai, India, between 2002 and 2008. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 383
Deshpande (2011) Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV Type 1 isolates from naive patients eligible for first line antiretroviral therapy in JJ Hospital, Mumbai, India. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 50
RT HIV1 group M: 51
Kao (2011) Surveillance of HIV type 1 recent infection and molecular epidemiology among different risk behaviors between 2007 and 2009 after the HIV type 1 CRF07_BC outbreak in Taiwan. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 381
RT HIV1 group M: 378
Sahbandar (2009) Current HIV type 1 molecular epidemiology profile and identification of unique recombinant forms in Jakarta, Indonesia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
Parboosing (2011) Resistance to antiretroviral drugs in newly diagnosed, young treatment-naive HIV-positive pregnant women in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 56
RT HIV1 group M: 56
Shahid (2011) HIV-1 circulating recombinant form in Nepal. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
Wallis (2010) Case report of the rare deletion at codon 69 of reverse transcriptase in a South African HIV-1 subtype C infected patient. Virus Genes PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
Moussa (2010) First data on HIV-1 resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs in Central African Republic. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 22
RT HIV1 group M: 21
Thorat (2011) Surveillance of transmitted HIV type 1 drug resistance among HIV yype 1-positive women attending an antenatal clinic in Kakinada, India. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 47
RT HIV1 group M: 47
Mezei (2011) Molecular epidemiological analysis of env and pol sequences in newly diagnosed HIV Type 1-infected, untreated patients in Hungary. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 29
RT HIV1 group M: 30
de Medeiros (2011) Co-circulation HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and CRF31_BC in a drug-naive population from Southernmost Brazil: Analysis of primary resistance mutations. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 99
RT HIV1 group M: 99
El-Khatib (2010) Viremia and drug resistance among HIV-1 patients on antiretroviral treatment: a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 47
RT HIV1 group M: 129
Bontell (2011) Transmitted drug resistance and phylogenetic analysis of HIV CRF01_AE in northern Vietnam. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 63
RT HIV1 group M: 63
Hoffmann (2009) Viremia, resuppression, and time to resistance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subtype C during first-line antiretroviral therapy in south Africa. Clin Infect Dis RT HIV1 group M: 112
Wright (2011) Influence of Gag-protease-mediated replication capacity on disease progression in individuals recently infected with HIV-1 subtype C. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 73
Gulick (2004) Triple-nucleoside regimens versus efavirenz-containing regimens for the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med PR HIV1 group M: 937
RT HIV1 group M: 937
Kasang (2011) HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) in antiretroviral therapy-naive patients in Tanzania not eligible for WHO threshold HIVDR survey is dramatically high. PLoS ONE PR HIV1 group M: 86
RT HIV1 group M: 86
Ndembi (2011) Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance among newly HIV-1 diagnosed young individuals in Kampala. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 70
RT HIV1 group M: 70
Charpentier (2011) High prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-1-untreated patients in Guinea-Conakry and in Niger. Antivir Ther RT HIV1 group M: 187
Chamberland (2012) Transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance in Benin could jeopardise future treatment options. Sex Transm Infect PR HIV1 group M: 127
RT HIV1 group M: 127
Carvalho (2011) Moderate prevalence of transmitted drug resistance and interiorization of HIV type 1 subtype C in the inland north state of Tocantins, Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 52
RT HIV1 group M: 52
El Annaz (2011) Presence of drug resistance mutations among drug-naive patients in Morocco. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 83
RT HIV1 group M: 82
Ng (2011) Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 in Singapore and identification of novel CRF01_AE/B recombinant forms. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 199
de Silva (2011) HIV-1 subtype distribution in the Gambia and the significant presence of CRF49_cpx, a novel circulating recombinant form. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Vallari (2011) Confirmation of putative HIV-1 group P in Cameroon. J Virol PR HIV1 group P: 1
RT HIV1 group P: 1
IN HIV1 group P: 1
Li (2010) Identification of a novel second-generation circulating recombinant form (CRF48_01B) in Malaysia: A descendant of the previously identified CRF33_01B. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 17
RT HIV1 group M: 17
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Kousiappa (2009) Near full-length genetic analysis of HIV sequences derived from Cyprus: evidence of a highly polyphyletic and evolving infection. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 77
RT HIV1 group M: 77
IN HIV1 group M: 77
Guimaraes (2009) Close phylogenetic relationship between Angolan and Romanian HIV-1 subtype F1 isolates. Retrovirology PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 9
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Delgado (2010) Identification of a new HIV type 1 BF intersubtype circulating recombinant form (CRF44_BF) in Chile. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Yamaguchi (2008) Identification of new CRF43_02G and CRF25_cpx in Saudi Arabia based on full genome sequence analysis of six HIV type 1 isolates. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 10
Vidal (2009) Genetic characterization of eight full-length HIV type 1 genomes from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) reveal a new subsubtype, A5, in the A radiation that predominates in the recombinant structure of CRF26_A5U. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 8
RT HIV1 group M: 8
IN HIV1 group M: 8
Vidal (2008) Characterization of an old complex circulating recombinant form, CRF27_cpx, originating from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and circulating in France. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Perez (2006) HIV Type 1 molecular epidemiology in Cuba: High genetic diversity, frequent mosaicism, and recent expansion of BG intersubtype recombinant forms. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 425
RT HIV1 group M: 425
Bartolo (2011) Origin and epidemiological history of HIV-1 CRF14_BG. PLoS One PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Rey (2009) High rate of early virological failure with the once-daily tenofovir/lamivudine/nevirapine combination in naive HIV-1-infected patients. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 22
Etienne (2011) Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms. Retrovirology PR HIV1 group CPZ: 2
RT HIV1 group CPZ: 2
IN HIV1 group CPZ: 2
Towler (2010) Analysis of drug resistance in children receiving antiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV-1 infection in Uganda. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 94
RT HIV1 group M: 94
Rangel (2010) Absence of primary integrase resistance mutations in HIV type 1-infected patients in Venezuela. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 36
RT HIV1 group M: 36
IN HIV1 group M: 67
Djoko (2010) HIV type 1 pol gene diversity and genotypic antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 41
RT HIV1 group M: 41
Djoko (2010) High HIV type 1 group M pol diversity and low rate of antiretroviral resistance mutations among the uniformed services in Kinshasa, DRC. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 94
RT HIV1 group M: 94
Castelbranco (2010) Frequency of primary resistance to antiretroviral drugs and genetic variability of HIV-1 among infected pregnant women recently diagnosed in Luanda-Angola. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 35
RT HIV1 group M: 35
Balode (2010) Low prevalence of transmitted drug resistance among newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Latvia. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 117
RT HIV1 group M: 117
Zeh (2005) Nigerian HIV type 2 subtype A and B from heterotypic HIV type 1 and HIV type 2 or monotypic HIV type 2 infections. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 93
PR HIV2: 13
Kandathil (2009) A comparison of interpretation by three different HIV type 1 genotypic drug resistance algorithms using sequences from non-clade B HIV type 1 strains. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 117
RT HIV1 group M: 117
Madsen (2007) Introduction of HIV type 1 into an isolated population: Molecular epidemiologic study from Greenland. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 75
RT HIV1 group M: 75
Arien (2005) Replicative fitness of historical and recent HIV-1 isolates suggests HIV-1 attenuation over time. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 23
RT HIV1 group M: 23
Parker (2007) Prevalence of drug-resistant and nonsubtype B HIV strains in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-infected individuals in New York State. AIDS Patient Care STDS PR HIV1 group M: 21
RT HIV1 group M: 21
Machado (2004) Alternative, age- and viral load-related routes of nelfinavir resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J PR HIV1 group M: 8
RT HIV1 group M: 3
Kandathil (2009) The frequency of HIV-I drug resistance mutations among treatment-naive individuals at a tertiary care centre in South India. Int J STD AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 93
RT HIV1 group M: 93
Sen (2007) High prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance mutations in antiretroviral treatment-experienced patients from Pune, India. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 86
RT HIV1 group M: 86
Lin (2007) Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 infection and full-length genomic analysis of circulating recombinant form 07_BC strains from injection drug users in Taiwan. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 269
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Sanchez (2006) Molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals in Medellin, Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg PR HIV1 group M: 37
RT HIV1 group M: 37
IN HIV1 group M: 8
Warachit (2007) Aberrant life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF15_01B-like clinical isolates from Thailand in human CD4+ T-cell lines. Microbes Infect PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Santos (2006) Characterization of a new circulating recombinant form comprising HIV-1 subtypes C and B in southern Brazil. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 181
RT HIV1 group M: 192
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Holzmayer (2005) Near-full-length genomic sequence of a human immunodeficiency type 1 subtype g strain from Cameroon. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Roques (2004) Phylogenetic characteristics of three new HIV-1 N strains and implications for the origin of group N. AIDS PR HIV1 group N: 2
RT HIV1 group N: 2
IN HIV1 group N: 2
Aulicino (2005) Sequence analysis of a south American HIV type 1 BC recombinant. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Montavon (2000) Most env and gag subtype A HIV-1 viruses circulating in West and West Central Africa are similar to the prototype AG recombinant virus IBNG. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Adojaan (2005) Predominance of a rare type of HIV-1 in Estonia. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Harris (2003) A cluster of HIV type 1 subtype C sequences from Ethiopia, observed in full genome analysis, is not sustained in subgenomic regions. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Babic (2006) Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations and HIV-1 non-B subtypes in newly diagnosed drug-naive patients in Slovenia, 2000-2004. Virus Res PR HIV1 group M: 76
RT HIV1 group M: 76
Peeters (1999) Characterization of a highly replicative intergroup M/O human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant isolated from a Cameroonian patient. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Perez (2001) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease genotype predicts immune and viral responses to combination therapy with protease inhibitors (PIs) in PI-naive patients. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 26
RT HIV1 group M: 19
Triques (2000) Near full length genome sequencing of divergent African HIV type 1 subtype F viruses leads to identification of a new HIV type 1 designated K. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 5
Montavon (1999) The identification of a complex A/G/I/J recombinant HIV type 1 virus in various West African countries. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1

 

2010
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Zolfo (2010) Genotypic impact of prolonged detectable HIV type 1 RNA viral load after HAART failure in a CRF01_AE-infected cohort. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 126
RT HIV1 group M: 124
Wright (2010) Gag-protease-mediated replication capacity in HIV-1 subtype C chronic infection: Associations with HLA type and clinical parameters. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 405
Mosha (2010) Prevalence of genotypic resistance to antiretroviral drugs in treatment-naive youths infected with diverse HIV type 1 subtypes and recombinant forms in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 44
RT HIV1 group M: 44
Avi (2011) Emerging transmitted drug resistance in treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus-1 CRF06_cpx-infected patients in Estonia. Scand J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 145
RT HIV1 group M: 145
Arruda (2010) Intermediate prevalence of HIV type 1 primary antiretroviral resistance in Ceara State, Northeast Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 74
RT HIV1 group M: 74
Neogi (2010) Naturally occurring polymorphisms and primary drug resistance profile among antiretroviral-naive individuals in Bangalore, India. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 21
Tee (2009) Estimating the date of origin of an HIV-1 circulating recombinant form. Virology PR HIV1 group M: 9
RT HIV1 group M: 9
Lakhashe (2008) Characterization of B/C recombinants of near full-length HIV type 1 from northeastern India with mosaics identical to ARE195FL but with a different ancestral origin. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Luk (2008) Near full-length genome characterization of an HIV type 1 CRF25_cpx strain from Cameroon. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Guo (2009) First detection of a novel HIV Type 1 CRF01_AE/07_BC recombinant among an epidemiologically linked cohort of IDUs in Jiangsu, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 15
RT HIV1 group M: 14
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Ntemgwa (2008) Near full-length genomic analysis of a novel subtype A1/C recombinant HIV type 1 isolate from Canada. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Ruchansky (2009) Identification of a new HIV Type 1 circulating recombinant form (CRF38_BF1) in Uruguay. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Struck (2007) A new HIV-1 B/F1 unique recombinant form (URF) outbreak in Luxembourg: near full-length genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 20
RT HIV1 group M: 20
IN HIV1 group M: 20
de Sa-Filho (2009) HIV type 1 diversity from newly diagnosed patients in Santos metropolitan area/Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 32
RT HIV1 group M: 31
Zhao (2010) Identification and genetic characterization of a novel CRF22_01A1 recombinant form of HIV type 1 in Cameroon. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Diop-Ndiaye (2010) Antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in antiretroviral-naive patients from Senegal. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 160
PR HIV1 group O: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 160
RT HIV1 group O: 3
Yamaguchi (2010) Near full-length sequence of HIV type 1 subtype J strain 04CMU11421 from Cameroon. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Vallari (2010) Four new HIV-1 group N isolates from Cameroon: prevalence continues to be low. ARHR PR HIV1 group N: 3
RT HIV1 group N: 3
IN HIV1 group N: 4
Sanders-Buell (2010) Distinct circulating recombinant HIV-1 strains among injecting drug users and sex workers in Afghanistan. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 11
RT HIV1 group M: 11
IN HIV1 group M: 11
Sanabani (2010) Characterization and frequency of a newly identified HIV-1 BF1 intersubtype circulating recombinant form in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Virology J PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Papathanasopoulos (2010) Characterization of HIV type 1 genetic diversity among South African participants enrolled in the AIDS vaccine integrated project (AVIP) study. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 35
RT HIV1 group M: 35
IN HIV1 group M: 32
Li (2010) Near full-length genomic characterization of a novel HIV type 1 subtype B/C recombinant strain from Yunnan, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Hamkar (2010) Assessing subtype and drug-resistance-associated mutations among antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected patients. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 42
RT HIV1 group M: 42
Fish (2010) Natural polymorphisms of integrase among HIV type 1-infected south African patients. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 73
Ferreira (2010) Prevalence of primary drug resistance-associated mutations among HIV type 1 vertically infected children in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 40
RT HIV1 group M: 40
Hawkins (2009) Clinical and genotypic findings in HIV-infected patients with the K65R mutation failing first-line antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 338
RT HIV1 group M: 338
Vessiere (2010) First evidence of a HIV-1 M/O recombinant form circulating outside Cameroon. AIDS PR HIV1 group O: 1
RT HIV1 group O: 1
IN HIV1 group O: 1
Fernandez-Garcia (2009) Near full-length genome characterization of a newly identified HIV type 1 subtype F variant circulating in St. Petersburg, Russia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Jones (2009) In-depth analysis of the origins of HIV type 1 subtype C in South America. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
Cardoso (2009) High level of multidrug resistance mutations in HIV type 1 pol gene and resistance-associated mutations to enfuvirtide (T-20) among antiretroviral-experienced patients from central Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 48
RT HIV1 group M: 48
Huang (2009) Complex mosaic composition of near full-length genomes of two NED (NIH-ENVA-DOD) subtype panel HIV type 1 strains, BCF-Dioum and BCF-Kita, originating from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Sanabani (2009) Near full-length genome analysis of low prevalent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subclade F1 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Virology J PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 5
Passaes (2009) Near full-length genome characterization of HIV type 1 unique BC recombinant forms from southern Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Rodrigues (2010) Young pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS in Criciuma, southern Brazil, are infected almost exclusively with HIV type 1 clade C. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 41
RT HIV1 group M: 39
Machado (2009) Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 in northern Brazil: Identification of subtypes C and D and the introduction of CRF02_AG in the amazon region of Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 66
Li (2010) Genetic characterization of 13 subtype CRF01_AE near full-length genomes in Guangxi, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 13
RT HIV1 group M: 13
IN HIV1 group M: 13
Rajesh (2009) Antiretroviral drug-resistant mutations at baseline and at time of failure of antiretroviral therapy in HIV type 1-coinfected TB patients. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 112
RT HIV1 group M: 119
Keele (2009) Increased mortality and AIDS-like immunopathology in wild chimpanzees infected with SIVcpz. Nature IN HIV1 group CPZ: 14
Fernandez-Garcia (2010) Identification of a new HIV type 1 circulating BF intersubtype recombinant form (CRF47_BF) in Spain. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Carr (2010) HIV-1 recombinants with multiple parental strains in low-prevalence, remote regions of Cameroon: Evolutionary relics?. Retrovirology PR HIV1 group M: 24
RT HIV1 group M: 23
IN HIV1 group M: 24
Holzmayer (2009) Characterization of genetically diverse HIV type 1 from a London cohort: Near full-length genomic analysis of a subtype H strain. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 15
Steegen (2009) Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy and development of drug resistance in HIV-1 infected patients in Mombasa, Kenya. AIDS Res Ther PR HIV1 group M: 16
RT HIV1 group M: 16
Thomson (2007) New insights into the origin of the HIV type 1 subtype A epidemic in former Soviet Union's countries derived from sequence analyses of preepidemically transmitted viruses. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 106
RT HIV1 group M: 106
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Lawrence (2006) Analysis of polymorphism in the protease and reverse transcriptase genes of HIV type 1 CRF02-AG subtypes from drug-naive patients from Saint-Etienne, France. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 31
RT HIV1 group M: 31
Ndembi (2010) Viral rebound and emergence of drug resistance in the absence of viral load testing: A randomized comparison between zidovudine-lamivudine plus nevirapine and zidovudine-lamivudine plus abacavir. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 87
RT HIV1 group M: 90
Blanco (2011) HIV-1 integrase inhibitor resistance and its clinical implications. J Infect Dis IN HIV1 group M: 22
Pieniazek (2004) HIV-1 complex recombinant was the predominant strain in Burkina Faso by the mid-1980s. CROI 2004 PR HIV1 group M: 57
Baker (2007) HIV subtypes distribution and implication for antiretroviral treatment in a Ugandan population. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic) PR HIV1 group M: 74
RT HIV1 group M: 75
Montavon (2002) Identification of a new circulating recombinant form of HIV type 1, CRF11-cpx, involving subtypes A, G, J, and CRF01-AE, in Central Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Sa-Filho (2007) Characterization of the full-length human immunodeficiency virus-1 genome from recently infected subjects in Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 12
RT HIV1 group M: 12
IN HIV1 group M: 12
Tymchuck (2010) Baseline HIV resistance in Malawi. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 20
RT HIV1 group M: 20
Pollakis (2003) Recombination of HIV type 1C (C'/C") in Ethiopia: possible link of EthHIV-1C' to subtype C sequences from the high-prevalence epidemics in India and Southern Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 23
RT HIV1 group M: 25
Gomez-Carrillo (2004) Drug resistance testing provides evidence of the globalization of HIV type 1: A new circulating recombinant form. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 589
RT HIV1 group M: 589
Soares (2010) Molecular diversity and polymerase gene genotypes of HIV-1 among treatment-naive Cameroonian subjects with advanced disease. J Clin Virol PR HIV1 group M: 49
RT HIV1 group M: 49
Fransen (2009) Loss of raltegravir susceptibility by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is conferred via multiple nonoverlapping genetic pathways. J Virol IN HIV1 group M: 14
Manosuthi (2010) Patients infected with HIV type 1 subtype CRF01_AE and failing first-line nevirapine- and efavirenz-based regimens demonstrate considerable cross-resistance to etravirine. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 134
Nakahara (2009) Secondary mutations in viruses resistant to HIV-1 integrase inhibitors that restore viral infectivity and replication kinetics. Antiviral Res IN HIV1 group M: 8
Goethals (2010) Primary mutations selected in vitro with raltegravir confer large fold changes in susceptibility to first-generation integrase inhibitors, but minor fold changes to inhibitors with second-generation resistance profiles. Virology IN HIV1 group M: 23
Espinosa (2004) Intersubtype BF recombinants of HIV-1 in a population of injecting drug users in Argentina. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 21
RT HIV1 group M: 21
Isarangkura-Na-Ayuthaya (2010) Appearance of drug resistance-associated mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF01_AE integrase derived from drug-naive Thai patients. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 78
Knops (2010) Evolution of protease inhibitor resistance in the gag and pol genes of HIV subtype G isolates. J Antimicrob Chemother PR HIV1 group M: 21
RT HIV1 group M: 21
Phan (2010) Characterization of HIV type 1 genotypes and drug resistance mutations among drug-naive HIV type 1-infected patients in northern Vietnam. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 173
RT HIV1 group M: 155
Chin (2010) Comparison of genotypic resistance mutations in treatment-naive HIV type 1-infected patients in Korea and China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 76
RT HIV1 group M: 76
Vinogradova (2010) Short communication: Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 in the Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation: Virtually uniform circulation of subtype A, former Soviet Union variant, with predominance of the V77I(PR) subvariant. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 41
RT HIV1 group M: 41
Hatano (2010) Evolution of integrase resistance during failure of integrase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. JAIDS IN HIV1 group M: 134
Bonura (2010) Transmission of drug-resistant HIV type 1 strains in HAART-naive patients: A 5-year retrospective study in Sicily, Italy. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 109
RT HIV1 group M: 109
Deshpande (2010) Analysis of RT sequences of subtype C HIV-type 1 isolates from Indian patients at failure of a first-line treatment according to clinical and/or immunological WHO guidelines. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 27
Passaes (2009) Lack of primary mutations associated with integrase inhibitors among HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and F circulating in Brazil. JAIDS IN HIV1 group M: 105
Chaturbhuj (2010) Transmitted HIV drug resistance among HIV-infected voluntary counseling and testing centers (VCTC) clients in Mumbai, India. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 34
RT HIV1 group M: 34
Nwobegahay (2012) Low prevalence of transmitted genetic drug resistance in a cohort of HIV infected naive patients entering antiretroviral treatment programs at two sites in northern South Africa. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 80
RT HIV1 group M: 80
Nwobegahay (2011) Prevalence of drug-resistant mutations in newly diagnosed drug-naive HIV-1-infected individuals in a treatment site in the Waterberg district, Limpopo province. S Afr Med J PR HIV1 group M: 57
RT HIV1 group M: 55
Avi (2010) Characterization of integrase region polymorphisms in HIV type 1 CRF06_cpx viruses in treatment-naive patients in Estonia. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 112
Yebra (2010) HIV-1 non-B subtypes: high transmitted NNRTI-resistance in Spain and impaired genotypic resistance interpretation due to variability. Antiviral Res PR HIV1 group M: 223
RT HIV1 group M: 218
Nouhin (2011) Natural polymorphisms of HIV-1 CRF01_AE integrase coding region in ARV-naive individuals in Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam: an ANRS AC12 working group study. Infect Genet Evol. IN HIV1 group M: 50
Lindstrom (2006) HIV-1 transmission cluster with M41L 'singleton' mutation and decreased transmission of resistance in newly diagnosed Swedish homosexual men. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 201
RT HIV1 group M: 199
Tovanabutra (2010) Evaluation of HIV type 1 strains in men having sex with men and in female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 21
RT HIV1 group M: 21
IN HIV1 group M: 21
Plantier (2009) A new human immunodeficiency virus derived from gorillas. Nat Med PR HIV1 group P: 1
RT HIV1 group P: 1
IN HIV1 group P: 1
Niama (2009) CRF45_AKU, a circulating recombinant from Central Africa, is probably the common ancestor of HIV type 1 MAL and HIV type 1 NOGIL. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Low (2009) Natural polymorphisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and inherent susceptibilities to a panel of integrase inhibitors. AAC IN HIV1 group M: 133
Arruda (2010) Genetic diversity on the integrase region of the pol gene among HIV type 1-infected patients naive for integrase inhibitors in Sao Paulo City, Brazil. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 76
Liao (2009) Phylodynamic analysis of the dissemination of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Vietnam. Virology PR HIV1 group M: 33
RT HIV1 group M: 33
IN HIV1 group M: 33
Orrell (2009) HIV type-1 clade C resistance genotypes in treatment-naive patients and after first virological failure in a large community antiretroviral therapy programme. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 20
RT HIV1 group M: 20
Iweriebor (2012) Molecular epidemiology of HIV in two highly endemic areas of northeastern South Africa. Arch Virol PR HIV1 group M: 29
RT HIV1 group M: 40
Knops (2010) The evolution of protease mutation 76V is associated with protease mutation 46I and gag mutation 431V. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 26
RT HIV1 group M: 26
Maiga (2010) Resistance-associated mutations to etravirine (TMC-125) in antiretroviral-naive patients infected with non-B HIV-1 subtypes. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 19
Zhang (2010) Surveillance of transmitted HIV type 1 drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV type 1-infected patients in Shandong province, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 47
RT HIV1 group M: 47
Baldanti (2009) Early emergence of raltegravir resistance mutations in patients receiving HAART salvage regimens. J Med Virol IN HIV1 group M: 11
Wittkop (2009) Virological and immunological response in HIV-1-infected patients with multiple treatment failures receiving raltegravir and optimized background therapy, ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort. J Antimicrob Chemother IN HIV1 group M: 34
Kagan (2007) Molecular basis of antagonism between K70E and K65R tenofovir-associated mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Antiviral Res RT HIV1 group M: 2
Delelis (2009) Impact of Y143 HIV-1 integrase mutations on resistance to raltegravir in vitro and in vivo. AAC IN HIV1 group M: 8
Burda (2010) HIV-1 reverse transcriptase drug-resistance mutations in chronically infected individuals receiving or naive to HAART in Cameroon. J Med Virol RT HIV1 group M: 49
Cuevas (2009) Incidence of non-B subtypes of HIV-1 in Galicia, Spain: High frequency and diversity of HIV-1 among men who have sex with men. Euro Surveill PR HIV1 group M: 92
RT HIV1 group M: 92
Wallis (2009) Varied HIV drug resistance patterns among patients on failing antiretroviral therapy in the South African national roll-out programme. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 220
RT HIV1 group M: 218
Garrido (2009) Integrase variability and susceptibility to HIV integrase inhibitors: Impact of subtypes, antiretroviral experience and duration of HIV infection. J Antimicrob Chemother IN HIV1 group M: 417
Saskova (2009) Molecular characterization of clinical isolates of human immunodeficiency virus resistant to the protease inhibitor darunavir. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 6
Azijn (2010) TMC278, a next-generation NNRTI, active against wild-type and NNRTI-resistant HIV-1. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 82
Iqbal (2009) Primary HIV-1 drug resistance and polymorphic patterns among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Chennai, southern India. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic) PR HIV1 group M: 37
RT HIV1 group M: 54
Aghokeng (2009) Evaluation of transmitted HIV drug resistance among recently-infected antenatal clinic attendees in four Central African countries. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 135
RT HIV1 group M: 135
Ayouba (2009) Low prevalence of HIV type 1 drug resistance mutations in untreated, recently infected patients from Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Senegal, Thailand, and Vietnam: The ANRS 12134 study. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 267
RT HIV1 group M: 267

 

2009
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Sato (2009) S/GSK1349572 integrase inhibitor resistance profile. EACS2009 IN HIV1 group M: 11
Castillo (2009) Surveillance of HIV type 1 drug resistance among naive patients from Venezuela. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 68
RT HIV1 group M: 65
Jayaraman (2006) A population-based approach to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug-resistant HIV among recent versus established HIV infections: results from the Canadian HIV strain and drug resistance surveillance program. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 420
RT HIV1 group M: 403
Palacios (2008) Prevalence of primary resistance mutations in patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection in the province of Malaga (Spain). Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin PR HIV1 group M: 128
RT HIV1 group M: 128
Gonsalez (2007) Drug resistance among chronic HIV-1-infected patients naive for use of anti-retroviral therapy in Sao Paulo city. Virus Res PR HIV1 group M: 105
RT HIV1 group M: 105
Nijhuis (2009) Failure of treatment with first-line lopinavir boosted with ritonavir can be explained by novel resistance pathways with protease mutation 76V. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 9
Smith (2009) A public health model for the molecular surveillance of HIV transmission in San Diego, California. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 662
RT HIV1 group M: 662
Ferreira (2008) Molecular characterisation of newly identified HIV-1 infections in Curitiba, Brazil: Preponderance of clade C among males with recent infections. Mem Ins Oswaldo Cruz PR HIV1 group M: 49
RT HIV1 group M: 49
Bellocchi (2005) Subtype analysis and mutations to antiviral drugs in HIV-1-infected patients from Mozambique before initiation of antiretroviral therapy: Results from the DREAM programme. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 59
RT HIV1 group M: 59
Weber (2003) Role of baseline pol genotype in HIV-1 fitness evolution. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 25
RT HIV1 group M: 25
Grossman (2005) Drug-resistant HIV infection among drug-naive patients in Israel. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 191
RT HIV1 group M: 189
Sanchez Onoro (2007) Primary antiretroviral drug resistance among patients diagnosed with HIV infection in Gran Canaria (Spain) between 2002 and 2005. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin PR HIV1 group M: 166
RT HIV1 group M: 165
Galluzzo (2007) Antiretroviral resistance mutations in untreated pregnant women with HIV infection in Uganda and Rwanda. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 72
RT HIV1 group M: 72
Vercauteren (2009) Transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 is stabilizing in Europe. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 2198
RT HIV1 group M: 2197
Cuevas (2009) HIV-1 transmission cluster with T215D revertant mutation among newly diagnosed patients from the Basque Country, Spain. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 287
RT HIV1 group M: 287
Varella (2007) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase mutation patterns among treatment-naive patients in different stages of infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 50
RT HIV1 group M: 50
Arora (2008) Drug resistance-associated genotypic alterations in the pol gene of HIV type 1 isolates in ART-naive individuals in North India. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 44
RT HIV1 group M: 40
Escoto-Delgadillo (2005) Drug-resistance mutations in antiretroviral-naive patients with established HIV-1 infection in Mexico. HIV Med RT HIV1 group M: 99
Reuman (2010) Panel of prototypical raltegravir-resistant infectious molecular clones in a novel integrase-deleted cloning vector. AAC IN HIV1 group M: 7
Vingerhoets (2010) Resistance profile of etravirine: combined analysis of baseline genotypic and phenotypic data from the randomized, controlled Phase III clinical studies. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 199
RT HIV1 group M: 199
McConnell (2008) Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 in newly diagnosed patients in southern Spain. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 72
RT HIV1 group M: 72
Bartolo (2009) Antiretroviral drug resistance surveillance among treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals in Angola: evidence for low level of transmitted drug resistance. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 141
RT HIV1 group M: 121
Dalai (2009) Evolution and molecular epidemiology of subtype C HIV-1 in Zimbabwe. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 151
Yaotse (2009) Genetic characterization of HIV-1 strains in Togo reveals a high genetic complexity and genotypic drug-resistance mutations in ARV naive patients. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 78
RT HIV1 group M: 78
Lee (2009) Primary drug resistance and transmission analysis of HIV-1 in acute and recent drug-naive seroconverters in Singapore. HIV Med PR HIV1 group M: 60
RT HIV1 group M: 60
Rosen-Zvi (2008) Selecting anti-HIV therapies based on a variety of genomic and clinical factors. Bioinformatics PR HIV1 group M: 162
RT HIV1 group M: 161
Nguyen (2008) HIV drug resistance threshold survey using specimens from voluntary counselling and testing sites in Hanoi, Vietnam. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 49
RT HIV1 group M: 49
Deho (2008) Subtype assignment and phylogenetic analysis of HIV type 1 strains in patients from Swaziland. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 47
RT HIV1 group M: 47
Tebit (2009) Analysis of the diversity of the HIV-1 pol gene and drug resistance associated changes among drug-naive patients in Burkina Faso. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 104
RT HIV1 group M: 104
Dumans (2009) Distinct resistance mutation and polymorphism acquisition in HIV-1 protease of subtypes B and F1 from children and adult patients under virological failure. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 159
RT HIV1 group M: 96
Yu (2009) Genetic diversity and drug resistance of HIV type 1 circulating recombinant form_BC among drug users in Guangdong province. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 100
RT HIV1 group M: 101
Cardoso (2009) HIV-1 pol phylogenetic diversity and antiretroviral resistance mutations in treatment naive patients from central west Brazil. J Clin Virol PR HIV1 group M: 97
RT HIV1 group M: 97
Bartolo (2009) HIV-1 genetic diversity and transmitted drug resistance in health care settings in Maputo, Mozambique. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 111
RT HIV1 group M: 78
Machado (2002) Use of the sensitive/less-sensitive (detuned) EIA strategy for targeting genetic analysis of HIV-1 to recently infected blood donors. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 30
RT HIV1 group M: 31
Salemi (2008) The HIV type 1 epidemic in Bulgaria involves multiple subtypes and is sustained by continuous viral inflow from West and East European countries. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 80
RT HIV1 group M: 79
Pillay (2008) Antiretroviral drug resistance surveillance among drug-naive HIV-1-infected individuals in Gauteng province, South Africa in 2002 and 2004. Antivir Ther RT HIV1 group M: 101
Chang (2008) Trends of antiretroviral drug resistance in treatment-naive patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in Taiwan. J Antimicrob Chemother PR HIV1 group M: 786
RT HIV1 group M: 786
Brennan (2009) Identification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 non-B subtypes and antiretroviral drug-resistant strains in United States blood donors. Transfusion PR HIV1 group M: 62
RT HIV1 group M: 62
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Little (2002) Antiretroviral-drug resistance among patients recently infected with HIV. N Engl J Med PR HIV1 group M: 321
RT HIV1 group M: 321
Fransen (2012) HIV-1 mutations at positions 143, 148, and 155 of integrase define different genetic barriers to raltegravir resistance in vivo. Journal of Virology IN HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 10
Chin (2006) Inverse relationship between viral load and genotypic resistance mutations in Korean patients with primary HIV type 1 infections. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 52
RT HIV1 group M: 52
Sirivichayakul (2008) HIV drug resistance transmission threshold survey in Bangkok, Thailand. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 88
RT HIV1 group M: 84
Mintsa-Ndong (2009) High HIV Type 1 prevalence and wide genetic diversity with dominance of recombinant strains but low level of antiretroviral drug-resistance mutations in untreated patients in northeast Gabon, Central Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 16
RT HIV1 group M: 15
Jacobs (2008) Phylogenetic diversity and low level antiretroviral resistance mutations in HIV type 1 treatment-naive patients from Cape Town, South Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 131
RT HIV1 group M: 91
Church (2008) Analysis of nevirapine (NVP) resistance in Ugandan infants who were HIV infected despite receiving single-dose (SD) NVP versus SD NVP plus daily NVP up to 6 weeks of age to prevent HIV vertical transmission. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 49
RT HIV1 group M: 49
Hosseinipour (2009) The public health approach to identify antiretroviral therapy failure: High-level nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance among Malawians failing first-line antiretroviral therapy. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 94
RT HIV1 group M: 94
Van Baelen (2009) A combined genotypic and phenotypic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant virus assay for the reverse transcriptase and integrase genes. J Virol Methods IN HIV1 group M: 10
Auwanit (2009) Detection of drug resistance-associated and background mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF01_AE protease and reverse transcriptase derived from drug treatment-naive patients residing in central Thailand. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 50
RT HIV1 group M: 50
Luo (2009) Prevalence of drug-resistant HIV-1 in rural areas of Hubei province in the People's Republic of China. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 152
RT HIV1 group M: 152
Koyalta (2009) High frequency of antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-infected adults receiving first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in N'Djamena, Chad. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 37
RT HIV1 group M: 33
Sichtig (2009) Evolution of raltegravir resistance during therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother IN HIV1 group M: 223
Thomson (2009) Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in St Petersburg, Russia: Predominance of subtype A, former Soviet Union variant, and identification of intrasubtype subclusters. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 102
RT HIV1 group M: 102
Avi (2009) Absence of genotypic drug resistance and presence of several naturally occurring polymorphisms of human immunodeficiency virus-1 CRF06_cpx in treatment-naive patients in Estonia. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 86
RT HIV1 group M: 56
Ibe (2008) Analysis of near full-length genomic sequences of drug-resistant HIV-1 spreading among therapy-naive individuals in Nagoya, Japan: Amino acid mutations associated with viral replication activity. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 12
RT HIV1 group M: 12
IN HIV1 group M: 12
Fujisaki (2009) An 11-year surveillance of HIV type 1 subtypes in Nagoya, Japan. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 535
RT HIV1 group M: 535
Eshleman (2009) Antiretroviral drug susceptibility among drug-naive adults with recent HIV infection in Rakai, Uganda. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 104
RT HIV1 group M: 104
Ishizaki (2009) Profile of HIV type 1 infection and genotypic resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs in treatment-naive HIV type 1-infected individuals in Hai Phong, Viet Nam. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 292
RT HIV1 group M: 271
Yamaguchi (2009) HIV type 1 group M subtype G in Cameroon: Five genome sequences. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 5
Garrido (2009) Dynamics in the selection of resistance mutations in HIV patients failing raltegravir and following its discontinuation. EUHIV DRW 2009 IN HIV1 group M: 18
Kassaye (2009) Envelope coreceptor tropism, drug resistance, and viral evolution among subtype C HIV-1-infected individuals receiving nonsuppressive antiretroviral therapy. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 51
RT HIV1 group M: 50
Canducci (2009) Dynamic patterns of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir-based salvage therapies. AIDS IN HIV1 group M: 37
Eshleman (2009) Analysis of pol integrase sequences in diverse HIV type 1 strains using a prototype genotyping assay. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 110
Jones (2009) Preclinical evaluation of GS-9160, a novel inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase. AAC IN HIV1 group M: 15
Poveda (2008) Phenotypic impact of resistance mutations on etravirine susceptibility in HIV patients with prior failure to nonnucleoside analogues. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 39
RT HIV1 group M: 39
Nouhin (2009) Low prevalence of drug resistance transmitted virus in HIV Type 1-infected ARV-naive patients in Cambodia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 59
RT HIV1 group M: 67
Tu (2009) Human immunodeficiency virus-1 genotypic drug resistance among volunteer blood donors in Yunnan, China. Transfusion PR HIV1 group M: 98
RT HIV1 group M: 98
van Hal (2009) HIV-1 integrase polymorphisms are associated with prior antiretroviral drug exposure. Retrovirology IN HIV1 group M: 133
Kousiappa (2009) Genetic analysis of HIV type 1 strains from newly infected untreated patients in Cyprus: high genetic diversity and low prevalence of drug resistance. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 37
RT HIV1 group M: 37
Soheilli (2009) Presence of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Iran. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 12
RT HIV1 group M: 8
Brennan (2008) The prevalence of diverse HIV-1 strains was stable in Cameroonian blood donors from 1996 to 2004. JAIDS IN HIV1 group M: 572
Nyombi (2008) Diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in Kagera and Kilimanjaro regions, Tanzania. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 166
RT HIV1 group M: 167
Papa (2002) Genetic variation of the protease and reverse transcriptase genes in HIV-1 CRF04_cpx strains. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 7
RT HIV1 group M: 3
Nukoolkarn (2004) Sequence variability of the HIV type 1 protease gene in Thai patients experienced with antiretroviral therapy. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 10
Delgado (2008) High prevalence of unique recombinant forms of HIV-1 in Ghana: Molecular epidemiology from an antiretroviral resistance study. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 207
RT HIV1 group M: 207
Gody (2008) High prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 non-B subtype strains from African children receiving antiretroviral therapy regimen according to the 2006 revised WHO recommendations. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 20
RT HIV1 group M: 19
Malet (2008) Mutations associated with failure of raltegravir treatment affect integrase sensitivity to the inhibitor in vitro. AAC IN HIV1 group M: 26
Parkin (2006) The K101P and K103R/V179D mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase confer resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 76
RT HIV1 group M: 5
Dumans (2004) Synonymous genetic polymorphisms within Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 subtypes may influence mutational routes to drug resistance. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 82
RT HIV1 group M: 128
Eshleman (2002) Survival of Ugandan infants with subtype A and D HIV-1 infection (HIVNET 012). JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 86
RT HIV1 group M: 86
Caride (2001) Genotypic and phenotypic evidence of different drug-resistance mutation patterns between B and non-B subtype isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 found in Brazilian patients failing HAART. Virus Genes PR HIV1 group M: 14

 

2008
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
McColl (2010) Strand transfer inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase: Bringing IN a new era of antiretroviral therapy. Antiviral Res IN HIV1 group M: 32
Pillay (2008) HIV type 1 subtype C drug resistance among pediatric and adult South African patients failing antiretroviral therapy. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 68
RT HIV1 group M: 68
Buzon (2008) Raltegravir susceptibility and fitness progression of HIV type-1 integrase in patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther IN HIV1 group M: 123
Das (2008) High-resolution structures of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase/TMC278 complexes: Strategic flexibility explains potency against resistance mutations. PNAS RT HIV1 group M: 5
Caron (2008) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroprevalence and antiretroviral drug resistance-associated mutations in miners in Gabon, central Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 21
RT HIV1 group M: 19
Lall (2008) Profile of primary resistance in HIV-1-infected treatment-naive individuals from western India. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 40
RT HIV1 group M: 40
De Meyer (2009) Characterization of virologic failure patients on darunavir/ritonavir in treatment-experienced patients. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 168
Vingerhoets (2008) An update of the list of NNRTI mutations associated with decreased virologic response to etravirine (ETR): Multivariate analyses on the pooled DUET-1 and DUET-2 clinical trial data. IHDRW 2008 RT HIV1 group M: 25
von Wyl (2007) Emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance in previously untreated patients initiating combination antiretroviral treatment: a comparison of different regimen types. Arch Intern Med PR HIV1 group M: 252
RT HIV1 group M: 253
Goethals (2008) Resistance mutations in HIV-1 integrase selected with elvitegravir confer reduced susceptibility to a wide range of integrase inhibitors. J Virol IN HIV1 group M: 11
Somi (2008) Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance among women attending antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 38
RT HIV1 group M: 38
Tebit (2006) Diversity of HIV in rural Burkina Faso . JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 33
Bonhoeffer (2004) Evidence for positive epistasis in HIV-1. Science PR HIV1 group M: 9467
RT HIV1 group M: 9467
Charpentier (2008) Drug resistance profiles for the HIV integrase gene in patients failing raltegravir salvage therapy. HIV Med IN HIV1 group M: 14
Sylla (2008) Characterization of drug resistance in antiretroviral-treated patients infected with HIV-1 CRF02_AG and AGK subtypes in Mali and Burkina Faso. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 89
RT HIV1 group M: 89
Liu (2007) Polymorphism and antiretroviral drug resistance patterns in the protease gene of HIV-1 subtypes infecting PI naive Chinese patients. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 70
Liu (2007) Polymorphisms and drug resistance analysis of HIV-1 CRF01_AE strains circulating in Fujian province, China. Arch Virol PR HIV1 group M: 66
RT HIV1 group M: 66
Ndembi (2008) Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance surveillance among newly HIV type 1-diagnosed women attending an antenatal clinic in Entebbe, Uganda. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 50
RT HIV1 group M: 50
Land (2008) Full-length HIV type 1 proviral sequencing of 10 highly exposed women from Nairobi, Kenya reveals a high proportion of intersubtype recombinants. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 10
RT HIV1 group M: 10
IN HIV1 group M: 10
Laeyendecker (2005) Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes in southern China. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 71
Holguin (2008) Genetic characterization of complex inter-recombinant HIV-1 strains circulating in Spain and reliability of distinct rapid subtyping tools. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Holguin (2005) Differences in the length of gag proteins among different HIV type 1 subtypes. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 104
Paraschiv (2007) Polymorphisms and resistance mutations in the protease and reverse transcriptase genes of HIV-1 F subtype Romanian strains. Int J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 29
RT HIV1 group M: 29
McNulty (2007) Evaluation of dried blood spots for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance testing. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 48
RT HIV1 group M: 48
Delaugerre (2005) Selection of a rare resistance profile in an HIV-1-infected patient exhibiting a failure to an antiretroviral regimen including tenofovir DF. J Clin Virol RT HIV1 group M: 1
Toni (2005) Characterization of nevirapine (NVP) resistance mutations and HIV type 1 subtype in women from Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) after NVP single-dose prophylaxis of HIV type 1 mother-to-child transmission. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 29
Poveda (2008) Evidence for different susceptibility to tipranavir and darunavir in patients infected with distinct HIV-1 subtypes. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 29
Brumme (2007) Evidence of differential HLA class I-mediated viral evolution in functional and accessory/regulatory genes of HIV-1. PLoS Pathog PR HIV1 group M: 824
RT HIV1 group M: 824
Andresen (2007) Characterization of near full-length genomes of HIV type 1 strains in Denmark: Basis for a universal therapeutic vaccine. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 17
RT HIV1 group M: 17
IN HIV1 group M: 17
Brennan (2007) HIV-1 strains identified in Brazilian blood donors: Significant prevalence of B/F1 recombinants. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 82
Dilernia (2007) HIV type 1 genetic diversity surveillance among newly diagnosed individuals from 2003 to 2005 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 283
RT HIV1 group M: 283
Ibe (2008) Trend of drug-resistant HIV type 1 emergence among therapy-naive patients in Nagoya, Japan: An 8-year surveillance from 1999 to 2006. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 402
RT HIV1 group M: 402
Church (2007) HIV type 1 variants with nevirapine resistance mutations are rarely detected in antiretroviral drug-naive African women with subtypes A, C, and D. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 245
RT HIV1 group M: 245
Hombrouck (2008) Mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase confer resistance to the naphthyridine L-870,810 and cross-resistance to the clinical trial drug GS-9137. AAC IN HIV1 group M: 3
Van Baelen (2007) Low level of baseline resistance to integrase inhibitors L731,988 and L810,810 in randomly selected subtype B and non-B HIV-1 strains. IHDRW 2007 IN HIV1 group M: 47
Punzi (2005) HIV infection and protease genetic diversity in a rural area of the southern Central African Republic. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 12
RT HIV1 group M: 2
Palma (2007) Molecular epidemiology and prevalence of drug resistance-associated mutations in newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Portugal. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 223
RT HIV1 group M: 222
Rowley (2008) The discovery of raltegravir, an integrase inhibitor for the treatment of HIV infection. Prog Med Chem IN HIV1 group M: 7
Ren (2007) In vitro cross-resistance studies of five different classes of integrase inhibitors in recombinant HIV-1. Antivir Ther IN HIV1 group M: 14
Marconi (2008) Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance after failure of a first highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 114
RT HIV1 group M: 115
de Sa Filho (2008) HIV type 1 poltype 1 pol gene diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in Santos, Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 83
RT HIV1 group M: 83
Vercauteren (2008) Prevalence and epidemiology of HIV type 1 drug resistance among newly diagnosed therapy-naive patients in Belgium from 2003 to 2006. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 298
RT HIV1 group M: 298
Lahuerta (2008) Rapid spread and genetic diversification of hiv type 1 subtype C in a rural area of southern Mozambique. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 51
Derache (2008) Evolution of genetic diversity and drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 among untreated patients from Mali between 2005 and 2006. J Antimicrob Chemother PR HIV1 group M: 193
RT HIV1 group M: 186
Bang (2008) Prevalence of primary antiretroviral resistance: Trends in Korea. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 81
RT HIV1 group M: 81
Vazquez de Parga (2005) Analysis of drug resistance-associated mutations in treatment-naive individuals infected with different genetic forms of HIV-1 circulating in countries of the former Soviet Union. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 246
RT HIV1 group M: 246
Eyer-Silva (2007) Autochthonous horizontal transmission of a CRF02_AG strain revealed by a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 diversity survey in a small city in inner state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil. Mem Ins Oswaldo Cruz PR HIV1 group M: 94
RT HIV1 group M: 94
Lloyd (2008) Prevalence of resistance mutations in HIV-1 infected Hondurans at the beginning of the national antiretroviral therapy program. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 336
RT HIV1 group M: 336
Ly (2007) Reverse transcriptase mutations in Cambodian CRF01_AE isolates after antiretroviral prophylaxis against HIV Type 1 perinatal transmission. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 49
RT HIV1 group M: 185
Martinson (2007) Selection and persistence of viral resistance in HIV-infected children after exposure to single-dose nevirapine. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 64
RT HIV1 group M: 64
Ojesina (2007) Characterization of HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase mutations in infants infected by mothers who received peripartum nevirapine prophylaxis in Jos, Nigeria. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 14
Brigido (2007) HIV type 1 subtype C and CB Pol recombinants prevail at the cities with the highest AIDS prevalence rate in Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 185
RT HIV1 group M: 195
Ndembi (2008) Molecular characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 in Yaounde, Cameroon: Evidence of major drug resistance mutations in newly diagnosed patients infected with subtypes other than subtype B. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 73
RT HIV1 group M: 74
RT HIV1 group O: 3
Delgado (2002) Identification of a newly characterized HIV-1 BG intersubtype circulating recombinant form in Galicia, Spain, which exhibits a pseudotype-like virion structure. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 9
RT HIV1 group M: 9
IN HIV1 group M: 9
Derache (2007) Genetic diversity and drug resistance mutations in HIV type 1 from untreated patients in Bamako, Mali. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 97
RT HIV1 group M: 96
Harrigan (2005) Rare mutations at codon 103 of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase can confer resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 6
Perez-Alvarez (2001) HIV-1 subtype G and BG recombinant viruses in Spanish natives: Evidence of characteristic mutations in reverse transcriptase and protease. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 15
RT HIV1 group M: 16
IN HIV1 group M: 8

 

2007
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Eshleman (2006) Phenotypic drug resistance patterns in subtype A HIV-1 clones with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase resistance mutations. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 35
RT HIV1 group M: 35
Zhong (2007) Genetic diversity and drug resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains circulating in Shanghai. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 70
RT HIV1 group M: 70
Shimura (2007) Broad anti-retroviral activity and resistance profile of a novel human immunodeficiency virus integrase inhibitor, Elvitegravir (JTK-303/GS-9137). J Virol IN HIV1 group M: 27
Razafindratsimandresy (2007) HIV type 1 diversity in the Seychelles. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 42
RT HIV1 group M: 42
Tamhane (2005) Characterization of a long terminal repeat region from an infectious Indian HIV type 2 isolate. ARHR PR HIV2: 1
RT HIV2: 1
IN HIV2: 1
Shafer (2003) Comparison of four-drug regimens and pairs of sequential three-drug regimens as initial therapy for HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med PR HIV1 group M: 1256
RT HIV1 group M: 1256
Wilbe (2002) Identification of two CRF11-cpx genomes and two preliminary representatives of a new circulating recombinant form (CRF13-cpx) of HIV type 1 in Cameroon. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Toni (2007) HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance in recently infected patients in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: a 4-year survey, 2002-2006. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 89
RT HIV1 group M: 87
Soundararajan (2007) Characterization of HIV-1 isolates from antiretroviral drug-naive children in southern India. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 26
RT HIV1 group M: 33
Tovanabutra (2007) Identification of CRF34_01B, a second circulating recombinant form unrelated to and more complex than CRF15_01B, among injecting drug users in northern Thailand. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Thomson (2005) Identification of a novel HIV-1 complex circulating recombinant form (CRF18_cpx) of Central African origin in Cuba. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
de Sa Filho (2006) Identification of two HIV type 1 circulating recombinant forms in Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 10
RT HIV1 group M: 10
IN HIV1 group M: 10
Casado (2005) Identification of a novel HIV-1 circulating ADG intersubtype recombinant form (CRF19_cpx) in Cuba. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Kijak (2004) Development and application of a high-throughput HIV type 1 genotyping assay to identify CRF02_AG in West/West Central Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 51
RT HIV1 group M: 51
IN HIV1 group M: 51
Yang (2003) Identification and characterization of a new class of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinants comprised of two circulating recombinant forms, CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC, in China. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Kusagawa (2003) Identification of HIV type 2 subtype B transmission in East Asia. ARHR PR HIV2: 1
RT HIV2: 1
IN HIV2: 1
Njai (2006) The predominance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) circulating recombinant form 02 (CRF02_AG) in West Central Africa may be related to its replicative fitness. Retrovirology PR HIV1 group M: 27
RT HIV1 group M: 27
IN HIV1 group M: 27
Tee (2006) Identification of a novel circulating recombinant form (CRF33_01B) disseminating widely among various risk populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 8
RT HIV1 group M: 8
IN HIV1 group M: 8
Yamaguchi (2004) HIV infections in northwestern Cameroon: identification of HIV type 1 group O and dual HIV type 1 group M and group O infections. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group O: 13
Yamaguchi (2002) Evaluation of HIV type 1 group O isolates: Identification of five phylogenetic clusters. ARHR IN HIV1 group O: 37
Takehisa (2007) Generation of infectious molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus from fecal consensus sequences of wild chimpanzees. J Virol PR HIV1 group CPZ: 5
RT HIV1 group CPZ: 5
IN HIV1 group CPZ: 5
Watanaveeradej (2003) Subtype C/CRF01_AE recombinant HIV-1 found in Thailand. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Sanders-Buell (2007) A nascent HIV type 1 epidemic among injecting drug users in Kabul, Afghanistan is dominated by complex AD recombinant strain, CRF35_AD. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Powell (2007) Circulating recombinant form (CRF) 37_cpx: an old strain in Cameroon composed of diverse, genetically distant lineages of subtypes A and G. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Powell (2007) Identification of a novel circulating recombinant form (CRF) 36_cpx in Cameroon that combines two CRFs (01_AE and 02_AG) with ancestral lineages of subtypes A and G. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Luk (2007) Near full-length genome characterization of three additional HIV type 1 CRF13_cpx strains from Cameroon. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Eyzaguirre (2007) Genetic characterization of HIV-1 strains circulating in Kazakhstan. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 85
RT HIV1 group M: 85
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Bradshaw (2007) Characterization of a novel drug-resistance pattern associated with the mutations K70G and M184V in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 5
Liao (2007) Genotypic analysis of the protease and reverse transcriptase of HIV type 1 isolates from recently infected injecting drug users in western China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 25
RT HIV1 group M: 25
Sagoe (2007) Variability of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 polymerase gene from treatment naive patients in Accra, Ghana. J Clin Virol PR HIV1 group M: 25
RT HIV1 group M: 25
King (2006) Phenotypic susceptibility to TMC-114 and tipranavir before and after lopinavir/ritonavir-based treatment in subjects demonstrating evolution of lopinavir resistance. IHDRW 2006 PR HIV1 group M: 18
Novitsky (2007) The reverse transcriptase 67N 70R 215Y genotype is the predominant TAM pathway associated with virologic failure among HIV type 1C-infected adults treated with ZDV/ddI-containing HAART in southern Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 61
RT HIV1 group M: 61
Lataillade (2007) Natural polymorphism of the HIV-1 integrase gene and mutations associated with integrase inhibitor resistance. Antivir Ther IN HIV1 group M: 66
Su (2007) In vitro selection and characterization of viruses resistant to R1206, a novel nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. IHDRW 2007 RT HIV1 group M: 11
Vingerhoets (2005) TMC125 displays a high genetic barrier to the development of resistance: evidence from in vitro selection experiments. J Virol RT HIV1 group M: 35
Das (2004) Roles of conformational and positional adaptability in structure-based design of TMC125-R165335 (etravirine) and related non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that are highly potent and effective against wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 variants. J Med Chem RT HIV1 group M: 6
Andries (2004) TMC125, a novel next-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor active against nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 6
Seyler (2007) Impact of genotypic drug resistance mutations on clinical and immunological outcomes in HIV-infected adults on HAART in West Africa. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 43
RT HIV1 group M: 43
Zolopa (2007) Resistance profile after viral rebound on atazanavir-containing therapy: focus on protease inhibitor naive subjects in the IMPACT study (BMS AI424-128). IHDRW 2007 PR HIV1 group M: 7
Malan DR (2010) 96-week efficacy and safety of atazanavir, with and without ritonavir, in a HAART regimen in treatment-naive patients. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care PR HIV1 group M: 20
Holguin (2005) Heterogeneous nature of HIV-1 recombinants spreading in Spain. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 48
RT HIV1 group M: 41
Vicenti (2007) Use of peripheral blood DNA for genotype antiretroviral resistance testing in drug-naive HIV-infected subjects. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 338
RT HIV1 group M: 338
Eshleman (2007) Antiretroviral drug resistance, HIV-1 tropism, and HIV-1 subtype among men who have sex with men with recent HIV-1 infection. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 195
RT HIV1 group M: 195
Lwembe (2007) Anti-retroviral drug resistance-associated mutations among non-subtype B HIV-1-infected Kenyan children with treatment failure. J Med Virol RT HIV1 group M: 35
Badreddine (2007) Identification and characterization of HIV type 1 subtypes present in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: High level of genetic diversity found. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 50
Han (2007) Genotypic resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs in treatment-naive HIV/AIDS patients living in Liaoning Province, China: Baseline prevalence and subtype-specific difference. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 91
RT HIV1 group M: 72
Rios (2007) Antiretroviral drug resistance and phylogenetic diversity of HIV-1 in Chile. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 157
RT HIV1 group M: 157
Kurle (2007) Emergence of NNRTI drug resistance mutations after single-dose nevirapine exposure in hiv type 1 subtype C infected infants in India. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 32
Vidal (2006) Identification and molecular characterization of subsubtype A4 in Central Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Tee (2005) The evolving molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Malaysia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 24
RT HIV1 group M: 36
Seoighe (2007) A model of directional selection applied to the evolution of drug resistance in HIV-1. Mol Bio Evol RT HIV1 group M: 600
Hazuda (2004) A naphthyridine carboxamide provides evidence for discordant resistance between mechanistically identical inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase. PNAS IN HIV1 group M: 12
Jones (2007) Resistance profile of HIV-1 mutants in vitro selected by the HIV-1 integrase inhibitor, GS-9137 (JTK-303). . CROI 2007 IN HIV1 group M: 14
Kassu (2007) Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in treatment-naive patients in North Ethiopia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 92
RT HIV1 group M: 92
Ochoa de Echaguen (2005) Genotypic and phenotypic resistance patterns at virological failure in a simplification trial with nevirapine, efavirenz or abacavir. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 25
RT HIV1 group M: 25
Doualla-Bell (2006) High prevalence of the K65R mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C isolates from infected patients in Botswana treated with didanosine-based regimens. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 23
Lama (2006) Linking HIV and antiretroviral drug resistance surveillance in Peru: A model for a third-generation HIV sentinel surveillance. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 374
RT HIV1 group M: 373
Doualla-Bell (2006) Impact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C on drug resistance mutations in patients from Botswana failing a nelfinavir-containing regimen. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 13
Torti (2005) Early virological failure after tenofovir + didanosine + efavirenz combination in HIV-positive patients upon starting antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 9
RT HIV1 group M: 17
Ndongmo (2006) HIV genetic diversity in Cameroon: possible public health importance. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 70
Viani (2006) Prevalence of primary HIV-1 drug resistance among recently infected adolescents: a multicenter adolescent medicine trials network for HIV/AIDS interventions study. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 55
RT HIV1 group M: 55
Baxter (2006) Genotypic changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease associated with reduced susceptibility and virologic response to the protease inhibitor tipranavir. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 3372
RT HIV1 group M: 3371
Sung (2001) Phylogenetic analysis of reverse transcriptase in antiretroviral drug-naive Korean HIV type 1 patients. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 10
Vidal (2007) HIV type 1 diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in Burundi. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 105
RT HIV1 group M: 105
Oette (2006) Primary HIV drug resistance and efficacy of first-line antiretroviral therapy guided by resistance testing. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 340
RT HIV1 group M: 339
Tee (2006) Prevalence and pattern of drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral-treated HIV-1 patients with suboptimal virological response in Malaysia. Med Microbiol Immunol PR HIV1 group M: 50
RT HIV1 group M: 50
Laurent (2006) Antiretroviral drug resistance and routine therapy, Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 21
RT HIV1 group M: 21
Galkin (2006) Full-length genomic sequencing and analysis of four HIV type 1 subtype B isolates circulating in the territory of Russia. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Aulicino (2005) Circulation of novel HIV type 1 A, B/C, and F subtypes in Argentina. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Li (2007) Rapid reversion of sequence polymorphisms dominates early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolution. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 18
RT HIV1 group M: 18
IN HIV1 group M: 18
van der Hoek (2007) Characterization of an HIV-1 group M variant that is distinct from the known subtypes. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Hai-Long (2007) Genetic characterization of CRF01_AE full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sequences from Fujian, China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 10
RT HIV1 group M: 10
IN HIV1 group M: 10
Shi (2004) Construction of an infectious HIV type 1 molecular clone from an African patient with a subtype D/C recombinant virus. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Paraskevis (2001) Molecular characterization of a complex, recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolate (A/G/J/K/?): evidence to support the existence of a novel HIV-1 subtype. J Gen Virol PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Tovanabutra (2001) First CRF01_AE/B recombinant of HIV-1 is found in Thailand. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Casado (2003) Near full-length genome characterization of an HIV type 1 CRF05_DF virus from Spain. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Paraskevis (2000) Molecular characterization of a recombinant HIV type 1 isolate (A/G/E/?): unidentified regions may be derived from parental subtype E sequences. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Hunt (2003) Characterization of near-full length genome sequences of three south African human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C isolates. Virus Genes PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Rodriguez (2006) Construction and characterization of an infectious molecular clone of HIV-1 subtype A of Indian origin. Virology PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Papathanasopoulos (2003) Full-length genome characterization of HIV type 1 subtype C isolates from two slow-progressing perinatally infected siblings in South Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
McLaughlin (2004) Sequence diversity of HIV-1 genomes from the HIV vaccine trials network. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Huang (2006) Genetic characterization of three CRF01_AE full-length HIV type 1 sequences from Fujian province, China. Chin Med J (Engl) PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Koulinska (2002) Common genetic arrangements among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype A and D recombinant genomes vertically transmitted in Tanzania. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Harris (2005) Genomic characterization of a novel HIV type 1 B/G intersubtype recombinant strain from an injecting drug user in Germany. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Neilson (1999) Subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and disease stage among women in Nairobi, Kenya. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Bernardin (2005) Human immunodeficiency virus mutations during the first month of infection are preferentially found in known cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 18
RT HIV1 group M: 18
IN HIV1 group M: 18
Galkin (2006) Sequencing and analysis of full-length HIV-1 CRF06_cpx isolate from Russia. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Gao (2001) Evidence of two distinct subsubtypes within the HIV-1 subtype A radiation. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 6
de Sa Filho (2005) Analysis of full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome reveals a variable spectrum of subtypes B and f recombinants in Sao Paulo, Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Sanabani (2006) Full-length genome analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C in Brazil. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Tatsumi (2006) Infectious DNA clones of subtype G and CRF02_AG HIV-1 derived from Ghananian isolates. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 7
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Yamaguchi (2006) Identification of HIV type 1 group N infections in a husband and wife in Cameroon: viral genome sequences provide evidence for horizontal transmission. ARHR PR HIV1 group N: 2
RT HIV1 group N: 2
IN HIV1 group N: 2
McClutchan (2002) Precise mapping of recombination breakpoints suggests a common parent of two BC recombinant HIV type 1 strains circulating in China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Carrion (2003) Circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG in south America. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Carr (2006) High genetic complexity of HIV-1 in low-prevalence, rural regions of Cameroon. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Swanson (2003) Full-length sequence analysis of HIV-1 isolate CM237: A CRF01_AE/B intersubtype recombinant from Thailand. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Viputtijul (2002) Heterosexually acquired CRF01_AE/B recombinant HIV type 1 found in Thailand. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Thomson (2005) Full-length recombinant form CRF18_cpx; isolated in Cuba in 1999. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Su (2003) HIV-1 subtype B' dictates the AIDS epidemic among paid blood donors in the Henan and Hubei provinces of China. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Meloni (2004) Distinct human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype A virus circulating in West Africa: Sub-subtype A3. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 5
Mamadou (2003) Emergence of complex and diverse CRF02-AG/CRF06-cpx recombinant HIV type 1 strains in Niger, West Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Sierra (2004) The analysis of near full-length genome sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 BF intersubtype recombinant viruses from Chile, Venezuela and Spain reveals their relationship to diverse lineages of recombinant viruses related to CRF12_BF. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Liu (2005) Genetic characterization of full-length HIV type 1 genomes from 3 infected paid blood donors in Henan, China. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Wilbe (2003) Characterization of novel recombinant HIV-1 genomes using the branching index. Virology PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Carrion (2004) Documentation of subtype C HIV Type 1 strains in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Thomson (2002) Diversity of mosaic structures and common ancestry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 BF intersubtype recombinant viruses from Argentina revealed by analysis of near full-length genome sequences. J Gen Virol PR HIV1 group M: 8
RT HIV1 group M: 8
IN HIV1 group M: 8
Toni (2005) Presence of CRF09_cpx and complex CRF02_AG/CRF09_cpx recombinant HIV type 1 strains in Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Masharsky (2003) Molecular cloning and analysis of full-length genome of HIV type 1 strains prevalent in countries of the former Soviet Union. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Ramos (2003) New HIV type 1 CRF01_AE/B recombinants displaying unique distribution of breakpoints from incident infections among injecting drug users in Thailand. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Arroyo (2005) HIV-1 diversity and prevalence differ between urban and rural areas in the Mbeya region of Tanzania. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 14
RT HIV1 group M: 14
IN HIV1 group M: 14
Sanabani (2006) Analysis of the near full length genomes of HIV-1 subtypes B, F and BF recombinant from a cohort of 14 patients in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Infect Genet Evol PR HIV1 group M: 14
RT HIV1 group M: 14
IN HIV1 group M: 14
Vinoles (2005) Seroincidence and phylogeny of human immunodeficiency virus infections in a cohort of commercial sex workers in Montevideo, Uruguay. Am J Trop Med Hyg PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Visawapoka (2006) Circulating and unique recombinant forms of HIV Type 1 containing subsubtype A2. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Arroyo (2004) HIV type 1 subtypes among blood donors in the Mbeya region of southwest Tanzania. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 20
RT HIV1 group M: 20
IN HIV1 group M: 20
Sierra (2007) Identification of 3 phylogenetically related HIV-1 BG intersubtype circulating recombinant forms in Cuba. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 14
RT HIV1 group M: 14
IN HIV1 group M: 14
Watanaveeradej (2006) Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 in preparation for a phase III prime-boost vaccine trial in Thailand and a new approach to HIV type 1 genotyping. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 27
RT HIV1 group M: 26
IN HIV1 group M: 27
Tovanabutra (2003) A new circulating recombinant form, CRF15_01B, reinforces the linkage between IDU and heterosexual epidemics in Thailand. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Pando (2006) First report of an HIV-1 triple recombinant of subtypes B, C and F in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Retrovirology PR HIV1 group M: 10
RT HIV1 group M: 10
IN HIV1 group M: 10
Keele (2006) Chimpanzee reservoirs of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1. Science PR HIV1 group CPZ: 4
RT HIV1 group CPZ: 4
IN HIV1 group CPZ: 26
Hsu (2005) Characterization of mutations in CRF01_AE virus isolates from antiretroviral treatment naive and experienced patients in Singapore. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 104
RT HIV1 group M: 104
Vidal (2006) HIV type 1 pol gene diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 70
RT HIV1 group M: 70
Qiu (2005) Characterization of five nearly full-length genomes of early HIV type 1 strains in Ruili city: Implications for the genesis of CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC circulating in China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 5
Carr (2005) HIV subtype and drug resistance patterns among drug-naive infected persons in Jos, Nigeria. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 23
RT HIV1 group M: 23
IN HIV1 group M: 7
Rey (2006) Virologic response of zidovudine, lamivudine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate combination in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
Damond (2004) Identification of a highly divergent HIV type 2 and proposal for a change in HIV type 2 classification. ARHR PR HIV2: 1
RT HIV2: 1
IN HIV2: 1
Kuritzkes (2004) Rate of thymidine analogue resistance mutation accumulation with zidovudine- or stavudine-based regimens. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 405
RT HIV1 group M: 407
Tovanabutra (2004) The changing molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 among northern Thai drug users, 1999 to 2002. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 38
RT HIV1 group M: 38
IN HIV1 group M: 38
Deshpande (2004) Molecular characterization of HIV type 1 isolates from untreated patients of Mumbai (Bombay), India, and detection of rare resistance mutations. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 122
RT HIV1 group M: 126
Santiago (2003) Amplification of a complete simian immunodeficiency virus genome from fecal RNA of a wild chimpanzee. J Virol PR HIV1 group CPZ: 1
RT HIV1 group CPZ: 1
IN HIV1 group CPZ: 1
Vidal (2003) High genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains in Chad, West Central Africa. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Mo (2006) Identification and structural characterization of I84C and I84A mutations that are associated with high-level resistance to HIV protease inhibitors and impair viral replication. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 38
Mokili (2002) Identification of a novel clade of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Democratic Republic of Congo. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Vidal (2000) Identification of a complex env subtype E HIV type 1 virus from the Democratic Republic of Congo, recombinant with A, G, H, J, K, and unknown subtypes. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Carr (2001) Diverse BF recombinants have spread widely since the introduction of HIV-1 into South America. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 21
RT HIV1 group M: 21
IN HIV1 group M: 21
Carr (2001) The AG recombinant IbNG and novel strains of group M HIV-1 are common in Cameroon. Virology PR HIV1 group M: 7
RT HIV1 group M: 7
IN HIV1 group M: 7
Cuevas (2002) High HIV-1 genetic diversity in Cuba. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 107
RT HIV1 group M: 107
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Dowling (2002) Forty-one near full-length HIV-1 sequences from Kenya reveal an epidemic of subtype A and A-containing recombinants. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 41
RT HIV1 group M: 41
IN HIV1 group M: 41
Rodenburg (2001) Near full-length clones and reference sequences for subtype C isolates of HIV type 1 from three different continents. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 13
RT HIV1 group M: 13
IN HIV1 group M: 13
Delgado (2001) Analysis of HIV type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences from Venezuela for drug resistance-associated mutations and subtype classification: A UNAIDS study. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 100
RT HIV1 group M: 100
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Whitcomb (2002) Hypersusceptibility to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-1: Clinical, phenotypic and genotypic correlates. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 10
Brennan (2000) Genetic variation in human immunodeficiency virus type 2: Identification of a unique variant from human plasma. ARHR PR HIV2: 1
RT HIV2: 1
IN HIV2: 1
Liitsola (2000) An AB recombinant and its parental HIV type 1 strains in the area of the former Soviet Union: Low requirements for sequence identity in recombination. UNAIDS virus isolation network. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Laukkanen (2000) Virtually full-length subtype F and F/D recombinant HIV-1 from Africa and South America. Virology PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Gao (1998) A comprehensive panel of near-full-length clones and reference sequences for non-subtype B isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 8
RT HIV1 group M: 8
IN HIV1 group M: 8

 

2006
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Montavon (2002) CRF06-cpx: A new circulating recombinant form of HIV-1 in West Africa involving subtypes A, G, K, and J. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Skinner (1998) Analysis of a large collection of natural HIV-1 integrase sequences, including those from long-term nonprogressors. JAIDS IN HIV1 group M: 16
Burns (2002) Sequence variability of the integrase protein from a diverse collection of HIV type 1 isolates representing several subtypes. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 18
IN HIV1 group O: 3
Yamaguchi (2006) HIV-1 group N: Evidence of ongoing transmission in Cameroon. ARHR IN HIV1 group N: 1
Reinke (2001) Natural selection results in conservation of HIV-1 integrase activity despite sequence variability. AIDS IN HIV1 group M: 4
Couto-Fernandez (2006) Phylogenetic analysis of Brazilian HIV type 1 subtype D strains: Tracing the origin of this subtype in Brazil. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 5
Swanson (2003) Molecular characterization of 39 HIV-1 isolates representing group M (subtypes A-G) and group O: Sequence analysis of gag p24, pol integrase, and env gp41. ARHR IN HIV1 group M: 37
IN HIV1 group O: 2
Marechal (2006) Increasing HIV type 1 polymorphic diversity but no resistance to antiretroviral drugs in untreated patients from Central African Republic: a 2005 study. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 96
RT HIV1 group M: 74
Bessong (2006) Resistance mutational analysis of HIV type 1 subtype C among rural South African drug-naive patients prior to large-scale availability of antiretrovirals. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 40
RT HIV1 group M: 35
Valle-Bahena (2006) Frequency of protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance mutations in naive HIV-infected patients. Arch Med Res PR HIV1 group M: 33
RT HIV1 group M: 36
Ciccozzi (2005) Molecular diversity of HIV in Albania. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 66
RT HIV1 group M: 66
Gittens (2003) The molecular epidemiology and drug resistance determination of HIV type 1 subtype B infection in Barbados. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 27
Maia Teixeira (2006) Trends in drug resistance mutations in antiretroviral-naive intravenous drug users of Rio de Janeiro. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 65
RT HIV1 group M: 65
Tsuiji (2006) V118 mutations in the transcriptase gene of HIV-1 from drug-naive hemophiliac patients in Japan. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 21
RT HIV1 group M: 20
Ravuri (2006) Primary drug resistance studies by genotypic analysis in HIV-1 Indian subtype C-infected individuals. Direct Genbank Submission RT HIV1 group M: 50
Rhee (2006) Genotypic predictors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance. PNAS PR HIV1 group M: 177
RT HIV1 group M: 217
Albrecht (2000) Effect of lamivudine in HIV-infected persons with prior exposure to zidovudine/didanosine or zidovudine/zalcitabine. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 64
Katzenstein (2000) Virologic and CD4+ cell responses to new nucleoside regimens: switching to stavudine or adding lamivudine after prolonged zidovudine treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. ACTG 302 Study Team. AIDS Clinical Trials Group. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 6
Katzenstein (2001) Virologic and CD4 cell response to zidovudine or zidovudine and lamivudine following didanosine treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 83
Vergne (2006) Natural polymorphism in protease and reverse transcriptase genes and in vitro antiretroviral drug susceptibilities of non-B HIV-1 strains from treatment-naive patients. J Clin Virol PR HIV1 group M: 19
RT HIV1 group M: 19
Saad (2006) Genetic forms of HIV type 1 in the former Soviet Union dominate the epidemic in Azerbaijan. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 41
RT HIV1 group M: 41
Koizumi (2006) Emergence of antiretroviral therapy resistance-associated primary mutations among drug-naive HIV-1-infected individuals in rural western Cameroon. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 54
RT HIV1 group M: 52
Barreto (2006) Trends in antiretroviral drug resistance and clade distributions among HIV-1--infected blood donors in Sao Paulo, Brazil. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 341
RT HIV1 group M: 341
Vessiere (2006) HIV-1 pol gene polymorphism and antiretroviral resistance mutations in drug-naive pregnant women in Yaounde, Cameroon. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 96
RT HIV1 group M: 96
Razafindratsimandresy (2006) High HIV type 1 subtype diversity and few drug resistance mutations among seropositive people detected during the 2005 second generation HIV surveillance in Madagascar. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 29
RT HIV1 group M: 31
Ojesina (2006) Subtype-specific patterns in HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase and protease in Oyo State, Nigeria: Implications for drug resistance and host response. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 43
RT HIV1 group M: 35
Petroni (2006) Update on primary HIV-1 resistance in Argentina: Emergence of mutations conferring high-level resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in drug-naive patients. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 52
RT HIV1 group M: 52
Resch (2005) Evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease genotypes and phenotypes in vivo under selective pressure of the protease inhibitor ritonavir. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 10
Ross (2006) A rare HIV reverse transcriptase mutation, K65N, confers reduced susceptibility to tenofovir, lamivudine and didanosine. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 2
Doyon (2005) Selection and characterization of HIV-1 showing reduced susceptibility to the non-peptidic protease inhibitor tipranavir. Antiviral Res PR HIV1 group M: 7
Romano (2000) Detection of genotypically drug-resistant HIV-1 variants and non-B subtypes in recently infected antiretroviral-naive adults in Italy. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 116
RT HIV1 group M: 116
Balotta (2000) Prevalence of transmitted nucleoside analogue-resistant HIV-1 strains and pre-existing mutations in pol reverse transcriptase and protease region, outcome after treatment in recently infected individuals. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 33
RT HIV1 group M: 38
Agwale (2006) Genotypic and phenotypic analyses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in antiretroviral drug-naive Nigerian patients. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 18
RT HIV1 group M: 18
Toni (2002) Primary HIV-1 drug resistance in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) a genotypic and phenotypic study. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 97
RT HIV1 group M: 98
Gallant (2005) Early virologic non-response to tenofovir, abacavir, and lamivudine in HIV-infected antiretroviral naive subjects. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 41
RT HIV1 group M: 41
Gibb (2002) Evolution of antiretroviral phenotypic and genotypic drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected children treated with abacavir/lamivudine, zidovudine/lamivudine or abacavir/zidovudine, with or without nelfinavir (the PENTA 5 trial). Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 157
RT HIV1 group M: 154
Rodrigues (2006) Low prevalence of primary antiretroviral resistance mutations and predominance of HIV-1 clade C at polymerase gene in newly diagnosed individuals from south Brazil. Virus Res PR HIV1 group M: 87
RT HIV1 group M: 97
Brown (2000) Reduced susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from patients with primary HIV infection to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is associated with variation at novel amino acid sites. J Virol RT HIV1 group M: 110
Simon (2002) Evolving patterns of HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral agents in newly infected individuals. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 152
RT HIV1 group M: 152
Delaunay (2005) Comparative selection of the K65R and M184V/I mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients enrolled in a trial of first-line triple-nucleoside analog therapy (Tonus IMEA 021). J Virol RT HIV1 group M: 44
Garcia-Bujalance (2005) Comparison between sequence analysis and a line probe assay for testing genotypic resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to antiretroviral drugs. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 54
RT HIV1 group M: 54
Murphy (1999) Treatment with amprenavir alone or amprenavir with zidovudine and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 347 Study Team. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 46
RT HIV1 group M: 40
Saad (2005) HIV type 1 strains common in Europe, Africa, and Asia co-circulate in Yemen. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 19
RT HIV1 group M: 19
IN HIV1 group M: 6
Brown (2005) Biologic and genetic characterization of a panel of 60 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates, representing clades A, B, C, D, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG, for the development and assessment of candidate vaccines. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 21
RT HIV1 group M: 21
IN HIV1 group M: 21
Tovanabutra (2005) Characterization of complete HIV type 1 genomes from non-B subtype infections in U.S. military personnel. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 13
RT HIV1 group M: 12
IN HIV1 group M: 13
Bibollet-Ruche (2004) Complete genome analysis of one of the earliest SIVcpzPtt strains from Gabon (SIVcpzGAB2). ARHR PR HIV1 group CPZ: 1
RT HIV1 group CPZ: 1
IN HIV1 group CPZ: 1
Nerrienet (2005) Simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-caught chimpanzees from Cameroon. J Virol PR HIV1 group CPZ: 1
RT HIV1 group CPZ: 1
IN HIV1 group CPZ: 1
Thomson (2004) Analysis of near full-length genome sequences of HIV type 1 BF intersubtype recombinant viruses from Brazil reveals their independent origins and their lack of relationship to CRF12_BF. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 8
RT HIV1 group M: 8
IN HIV1 group M: 8
McCutchan (2004) HIV type 1 circulating recombinant form CRF09_cpx from west Africa combines subtypes A, F, G, and may share ancestors with CRF02_AG and Z321. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Bodelle (2004) Identification and genomic sequence of an HIV type 1 group N isolate from Cameroon. ARHR PR HIV1 group N: 1
RT HIV1 group N: 1
IN HIV1 group N: 1
Rhee (2004) Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase mutation patterns in 4,183 persons undergoing genotypic resistance testing. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 469
PR HIV1 group M: 41
RT HIV1 group M: 257
RT HIV1 group M: 39
Yamaguchi (2003) Near full-length genomes of 15 HIV type 1 group O isolates. ARHR PR HIV1 group O: 15
RT HIV1 group O: 15
IN HIV1 group O: 15
Fang (2004) Long-term survivors in Nairobi: Complete HIV-1 RNA sequences and immunogenetic associations. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 7
RT HIV1 group M: 7
IN HIV1 group M: 7
Santiago (2002) SIVcpz in wild chimpanzees. Science RT HIV1 group CPZ: 1
IN HIV1 group CPZ: 1
Takebe (2003) High prevalence of diverse forms of HIV-1 intersubtype recombinants in Central Myanmar: Geographical hot spot of extensive recombination. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 9
RT HIV1 group M: 9
IN HIV1 group M: 9
Willliamson (2003) Characterization and selection of HIV-1 subtype C isolates for use in vaccine development. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 28
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Hierholzer (2002) Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Argentina. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 10
RT HIV1 group M: 10
IN HIV1 group M: 10
Megede (2002) Novel evolutionary analyses of full-length HIV type 1 subtype C molecular clones from Cape Town, South Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Gao (2001) Molecular characterization of a highly divergent HIV type 1 isolate obtained early in the AIDS epidemic from the Democratic Republic of Congo. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Kane (2001) Full-length genome sequencing of HIV type 1 group O viruses isolated from a heterosexual transmission cluster in Senegal. ARHR PR HIV1 group O: 3
RT HIV1 group O: 3
IN HIV1 group O: 3
Baldrich-Rubio (2001) A complex human immunodeficiency virus type 1 A/G/J recombinant virus isolated from a seronegative patient with AIDS from Benin, West Africa. J Gen Virol PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Papathanasopoulos (2002) Full-length genome analysis of HIV-1 subtype C utilizing CXCR4 and intersubtype recombinants isolated in South Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Novitsky (2002) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C molecular phylogeny: consensus sequence for an AIDS vaccine design? J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 42
RT HIV1 group M: 42
IN HIV1 group M: 42
Hoelscher (2001) High proportion of unrelated HIV-1 intersubtype recombinants in the Mbeya region of southwest Tanzania. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 9
RT HIV1 group M: 9
IN HIV1 group M: 9
Wu (2003) Mutation patterns and structural correlates in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease following different protease inhibitor treatments. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 2042
Tebit (2002) Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of HIV type 1 primary isolates from western Cameroon. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 19
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
van Harmelen (2001) Characterization of full-length HIV type 1 subtype C sequences from South Africa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Piyasirisilp (2000) A recent outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in southern China was initiated by two highly homogeneous, geographically separated strains, circulating recombinant form AE and a novel BC recombinant. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 5
Janssens (2000) Near full-length genome analysis of HIV type 1 CRF02.AG subtype C and CRF02.AG subtype G recombinants. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Koulinska (2001) A new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 circulating recombinant form from Tanzania. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Gonzales (2001) HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease subtypes: Classification, amino acid mutation patterns, and prevalence in a northern California clinic-based population. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 2166
RT HIV1 group M: 2184
Anderson (2000) Testing the hypothesis of a recombinant origin of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype E. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Carr (1999) Characterization of subtype A HIV-1 from Africa by full genome sequencing. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 7
RT HIV1 group M: 7
IN HIV1 group M: 7
Souquiere (2000) Characterization of four newly derived HIV-1 Group N and two SIVcpz strains from Cameroon. J Med Primatol. PR HIV1 group CPZ: 1
RT HIV1 group CPZ: 1
IN HIV1 group CPZ: 1
Jonassen (2000) Intersubtype recombinant HIV type 1 involving HIV-MAL-like and subtype H-like sequence in four Norwegian cases. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Corbet (2000) Env sequences of SIV from chimpanzees in Cameroon are strongly related to HIV group N from the same geographic area. J Virol PR HIV1 group CPZ: 1
RT HIV1 group CPZ: 1
IN HIV1 group CPZ: 1
Novitsky (1999) HIV-1 A/J recombinant with a pronounced pol gene mosaicism. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Janssens (1999) HIV-1 subtype H near-full genome reference strains and analysis of subtype-H-containing inter-subtype recombinants. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Simon (1998) Identification of a new human immunodeficiency type 1 group distinct from group M and group O. Nat Med PR HIV1 group N: 1
RT HIV1 group N: 1
IN HIV1 group N: 1
Carr (1999) Direct Genbank submission: HIV-1 isolates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and from Gabon. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Nasioulas (1999) Molecular analysis of the full-length genome of HIV type 1 subtype I: evidence of A/G/I recombination. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Novitsky (1999) Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C: A set of 23 full-length clones from Botswana. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 8
RT HIV1 group M: 8
IN HIV1 group M: 8
Gao (1999) Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Nature PR HIV1 group CPZ: 1
RT HIV1 group CPZ: 1
IN HIV1 group CPZ: 1
Oelrichs (1999) Full-length genomic sequence of a subtype G HIV-1 from Kinshasa. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Laukkanen (1999) Virtually full-length sequences of HIV type 1 subtype J reference strains. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Gao (1998) An isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originally classified as subtype I represents a complex mosaic comprising three different group M subtypes. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Oelrichs (1998) A novel subtype A/G/J recombinant full-length HIV Type 1 genome from Burkina Faso. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Jonassen (1997) Sequence analysis of HIV-1 group O from Norwegian patients infected in the 1960s. Virology RT HIV1 group O: 1
IN HIV1 group O: 1
Mwaengo (1998) Molecular cloning and characterization of viruses isolated from chimpanzees with pathogenic HIV-1 infections. J Virol PR HIV1 group CPZ: 2
RT HIV1 group CPZ: 2
IN HIV1 group CPZ: 2
Carr (1998) Full genome sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes G and A/G intersubtype recombinants. Virology PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 4
IN HIV1 group M: 4
Lole (1999) Full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomes from subtype C-infected seroconverters in India, with evidence of intersubtype recombination. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 5
RT HIV1 group M: 5
IN HIV1 group M: 5
Graf (1998) Cloning and characterization of a virtually full-length HIV-1 genome from a subtype B'-Thai strain representing the most prevalent B-clade isolate in china. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Gao (1996) Molecular cloning and analysis of functional envelope genes from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sequence subtypes A through G. The WHO and NIAID networks for HIV isolation and characterization. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
IN HIV1 group M: 2
Gurtler (1994) A new subtype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (MVP-5180) from Cameroon. J Virol PR HIV1 group O: 1
RT HIV1 group O: 1
IN HIV1 group O: 1
Vanden Haesevelde (1994) Genomic cloning and complete sequence analysis of a highly divergent African human immunodeficiency virus isolate. J Virol PR HIV1 group O: 1
RT HIV1 group O: 1
IN HIV1 group O: 1
McIntosh (1991) Complete genome sequence of a Cambridge isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Huet (1990) Genetic organization of a chimpanzee lentivirus related to HIV-1. Nature PR HIV1 group CPZ: 1
RT HIV1 group CPZ: 1
IN HIV1 group CPZ: 1
Wong-Staal (1985) Complete nucleotide sequence of the AIDS virus, HTLV-III. Nature PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Ishikawa (1988) Isolation and characterization of HIV-2 from an AIDS patient in Ghana. AIDS PR HIV2: 1
RT HIV2: 1
IN HIV2: 1
Clavel (1986) Isolation of a new human retrovirus from west African patients with AIDS. Science PR HIV2: 1
RT HIV2: 1
IN HIV2: 1
Salminen (1996) Full-length sequence of an Ethiopian human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolate of genetic subtype C. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Gao (1996) The heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 epidemic in Thailand is caused by an intersubtype (A/E) recombinant of African origin. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
IN HIV1 group M: 3
Vanden Haesevelde (1996) Sequence analysis of a highly divergent HIV-1 related lentivirus from a wild captured chimpanzee. Virology PR HIV1 group CPZ: 1
RT HIV1 group CPZ: 1
IN HIV1 group CPZ: 1
Howard (1996) Genomic structure and nucleotide sequence analysis of a new HIV type 1 subtype A strain from Nigeria. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1
Carr (1996) Full-length sequence and mosaic structure of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate from Thailand. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
IN HIV1 group M: 1

 

2005
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Mitsuya (2006) N88D facilitates the co-occurrence of D30N and L90M and the development of multidrug resistance in HIV type 1 protease following nelfinavir treatment failure. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 27
Ly (2005) Characterization of mutations in HIV type 1 isolates from 144 Cambodian recently infected patients and pregnant women naive to antiretroviral drugs. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 136
RT HIV1 group M: 144
K'Aluoch (2005) Characterization of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants in a Uganda cohort by use of the gag, nef and pol genes. Direct Genbank Submission PR HIV1 group M: 34
RT HIV1 group M: 37
Gonzalez Perez (2003) Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of HIV and HTLV infection in Equatorial Guinea, 1996-1998. Direct Genbank Submission RT HIV1 group M: 41
Pandrea (2002) Analysis of partial pol and env sequences indicates a high prevalence of HIV type 1 recombinant strains circulating in Gabon. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 30
RT HIV1 group M: 36
Petch (2005) Genotypic analysis of the protease and reverse transcriptase of HIV type 1 subtype C isolates from antiretroviral drug-naive adults in Malawi. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 21
RT HIV1 group M: 21
Sandstrom (2005) Sequences from untreated patients circa 1984. Unpublished PR HIV1 group M: 58
RT HIV1 group M: 58
Rodes (2005) Treatment response and drug resistance in patients infected with HIV type 1 group O viruses. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 1
PR HIV1 group O: 9
RT HIV1 group O: 10
Rodes (2006) Susceptibility to protease inhibitors in HIV-2 primary isolates from patients failing antiretroviral therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother PR HIV2: 6
Paraskevis (2005) Prevalence of resistance-associated mutations in newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Greece. Virus Res RT HIV1 group M: 101
Eshleman (2005) Nevirapine (NVP) resistance in women with HIV-1 subtype C, compared with subtypes A and D, after the administration of single-dose NVP. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 65
RT HIV1 group M: 65
Yerly (2001) Nosocomial outbreak of multiple bloodborne viral infections. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 34
RT HIV1 group M: 34
Balakrishnan (2005) HIV type 1 genotypic variation in an antiretroviral treatment-naive population in southern India. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 50
RT HIV1 group M: 50
Mo (2005) Selection of resistance in protease inhibitor-experienced, human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected subjects failing lopinavir- and ritonavir-based therapy: mutation patterns and baseline correlates. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 87
RT HIV1 group M: 87
Tee (2005) Emergence of HIV-1 CRF01_AE/B unique recombinant forms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 100
RT HIV1 group M: 100
Coakley (2005) Atazanavir resistance in a protease inhibitor-naive patient treated with atazanavir/ritonavir associated with development of high-level atazanavir resistance and the N88S mutation in protease. CROI 2007 PR HIV1 group M: 1
Weber (2005) Diminished replicative fitness of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates harboring the K65R mutation. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 10
RT HIV1 group M: 10
Bussmann (2005) HIV-1 subtype C drug-resistance background among ARV-naive adults in Botswana. Antivir Chem Chemother PR HIV1 group M: 71
RT HIV1 group M: 71
Podzamczer (2005) Early virological failure with a combination of tenofovir, didanosine and efavirenz. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
Non-B Workgroup (2005) Impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral therapy on protease and reverse transcriptase genotype: Results of a global collaboration. PLoS Med PR HIV1 group M: 1064
RT HIV1 group M: 1610
Eshleman (2005) Limited evolution in the HIV type 1 pol region among acute seroconverters in Pune, India. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 29
RT HIV1 group M: 29
Kinomoto (2005) HIV-1 proteases from drug-naive West African patients are differentially less susceptible to protease inhibitors. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 38
Bessong (2005) Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from a previously unexplored region of South Africa with a high HIV prevalence. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 13
RT HIV1 group M: 13
Hammer (1997) A controlled trial of two nucleoside analogues plus indinavir in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4 cell counts of 200 per cubic millimeter or less. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 320 Study Team. N Engl J Med PR HIV1 group M: 356
RT HIV1 group M: 356
Albrecht (2001) Nelfinavir, efavirenz, or both after the failure of nucleoside treatment of HIV infection.AIDS Clinical Trials Group 364 Study Team. N Engl J Med PR HIV1 group M: 156
RT HIV1 group M: 159
Grossman (2004) Mutation D30N is not preferentially selected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C in the development of resistance to nelfinavir. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 99
Kempf (2001) Identification of genotypic changes in human immunodeficiency virus protease that correlate with reduced susceptibility to the protease inhibitor lopinavir among viral isolates from protease inhibitor-experienced patients. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 177
RT HIV1 group M: 176

 

2004
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Johnston (2003) High frequency of syncytium-inducing and CXCR4-tropic viruses among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 49
RT HIV1 group M: 49
Bouchard (2007) HIV type 1 drug resistance among naive patients from Venezuela. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 17
RT HIV1 group M: 20
Johnston (2005) Panel of prototypical infectious molecular HIV-1 clones containing multiple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 23
Winters (2000) Genotypic, phenotypic, and modeling studies of a deletion in the beta3-beta4 region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase gene that is associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. J Virol RT HIV1 group M: 7
RT HIV1 group M: 7
Machado (2004) Genotypic resistance and HIV-1 subtype in Brazilian children on dual and triple combination therapy. J Clin Virol PR HIV1 group M: 74
RT HIV1 group M: 75
Roudinskii (2004) Diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype A and CRF03_AB protease in eastern Europe: Selection of the V77I variant and its rapid spread in injecting drug user populations. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 28
de Sa Filho (2003) Analysis of the protease sequences of HIV-1 infected individuals after indinavir monotherapy. J Clin Virol PR HIV1 group M: 50
Clevenbergh (2002) Long-term virological outcome in patients infected with multi-nucleoside analogue-resistant HIV-1. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 12
RT HIV1 group M: 12
Machado (2004) Overview of genotypic and clinical profiles of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. An Acad Bras Cienc PR HIV1 group M: 73
RT HIV1 group M: 68
Cinque (2001) Effect of genotypic resistance on the virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in cerebrospinal fluid. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 15
RT HIV1 group M: 18
Holguin (2004) Impact of frequent natural polymorphisms at the protease gene on the in vitro susceptibility to protease inhibitors in HIV-1 non-B subtypes. J Clin Virol PR HIV1 group M: 55
Shang (2007) Genotypic resistance mutation to antiretroviral drugs in treatment-naive HIV/AIDS patients in the northeast of China. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 54
RT HIV1 group M: 54
Friend (2004) Isolated lopinavir resistance after virological rebound of a ritonavir/lopinavir-based regimen. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 3
Lam (2003) Amprenavir resistance imparted by the I50V mutation in HIV-1 protease can be suppressed by the N88S mutation. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 3
Murphy (2004) HIV protease mutations associated with amprenavir resistance during salvage therapy: Importance of I54M. J Clin Virol PR HIV1 group M: 8
Kaye (2002) Observations of HIV-1 genotypic drug resistance in a trial of four reverse transcriptase inhibitors (Quattro Trial). Antivir Ther RT HIV1 group M: 58
Eshleman (2004) Performance of the Celera Diagnostics ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system for sequence-based analysis of diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 124
RT HIV1 group M: 124
Hierholzer (2002) HIV type 1 strains from east and west Africa are intermixed in Sudan. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 30
RT HIV1 group M: 30
Konings (2004) V118I substitution in the reverse transcriptase gene of HIV type 1 CRF02_AG strains infecting drug-naive individuals in Cameroon. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 12
Eshleman (2004) Comparison of nevirapine (NVP) resistance in Ugandan women 7 days vs. 6-8 weeks after single-dose nvp prophylaxis: HIVNET 012. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 141
RT HIV1 group M: 141
Delgado (2004) Genotypic (and phenotypic) predictors of a response to DDI monotherapy in ZDV-experienced patients. Antivir Ther RT HIV1 group M: 24
Yates (2006) In vitro development of resistance to human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor GW640385. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 5
Vergne (2003) Low rate of genotypic HIV-1 drug-resistant strains in the Senegalese government initiative of access to antiretroviral therapy. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 45
RT HIV1 group M: 45
Sevigny (2004) Cross-resistance profile of the novel lysine-containing HIV-1 protease inhibitor PL-100. IHDRW 2004 PR HIV1 group M: 14
Mueller (2004) Susceptibility to saquinavir and atazanavir in highly protease inhibitor(PI) resistant HIV-1 is caused by lopinavir-induced drug resistance mutation L76V. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 24
Apetrei (2003) HIV type 1 diversity in northeastern Romania in 2000-2001 based on phylogenetic analysis of pol sequences from patients failing antiretroviral therapy. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 77
RT HIV1 group M: 86
Montes (2004) Comparison of drug resistance mutations and their interpretation in patients infected with non-B HIV-1 variants and matched patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 153
RT HIV1 group M: 184
Parreira (2004) Natural polymorphism of HIV-1 subtype G protease and cleavage sites. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 51
Yang (2004) Genetic diversity and high proportion of intersubtype recombinants among HIV type 1-infected pregnant women in Kisumu, western Kenya. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 38
RT HIV1 group M: 38
Maljkovic (2003) Limited transmission of drug-resistant HIV type 1 in 100 Swedish newly detected and drug-naive patients infected with subtypes A, B, C, D, G, U, and CRF01_AE. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 100
RT HIV1 group M: 100
Perno (2001) Impact of mutations conferring reduced susceptibility to lamivudine(3TC) on the response to antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 202
RT HIV1 group M: 203
Eshleman (2004) Characterization of nevirapine resistance mutations in women with subtype A vs. D HIV-1 6-8 weeks after single-dose nevirapine. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 177
RT HIV1 group M: 177
Pieniazek (2004) HIV-2 protease sequences of subtypes A and B harbor multiple mutations associated with protease inhibitor resistance in HIV-1. AIDS PR HIV2: 27
Vaughan (2003) Characterization of HIV type 1 clades in the Caribbean using pol gene sequences. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 71
RT HIV1 group M: 71
Richard (2004) High prevalence of antiretroviral resistance in treated Ugandans infected with non-subtype B human immunodeficiency virus type 1. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 90
Servais (2004) HIV type 1 pol gene diversity and archived nevirapine resistance mutation in pregnant women in Rwanda. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 43
RT HIV1 group M: 43
Tural (2002) Clinical utility of HIV-1 genotyping and expert advice: the Havana trial. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 141
RT HIV1 group M: 130
Lanier (2004) Effect of concurrent zidovudine use on the resistance pathway selected by abacavir-containing regimens. HIV Med RT HIV1 group M: 9
Jorgensen (2003) Prevalence of drug resistance mutations and non-B subtypes in newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Denmark. Scand J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 96
RT HIV1 group M: 97
Konings (2004) Protease mutations in HIV-1 non-B strains infecting drug-naive villagers of Cameroon. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 129
Chaix (2003) Stable prevalence of genotypic drug resistance mutations but increase in non-B virus among patients with primary HIV-1 infection in France. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 244
Zhong (2003) Genetic and biological properties of HIV type 1 isolates prevalent in villagers of the Cameroon equatorial rain forests and grass fields: Further evidence of broad HIV type 1 genetic diversity. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
Pires (2004) Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance mutations and subtypes in drug-naive, infected individuals in the army health service of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 49
RT HIV1 group M: 49
Kantor (2002) HIV-1 subtype C reverse transcriptase and protease genotypes in Zimbabwean patients failing antiretroviral therapy. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 23
RT HIV1 group M: 23
Weber (2005) Impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral therapy on protease and reverse transcriptase genotype: Results of a global collaboration. PLoS Med PR HIV1 group M: 155
RT HIV1 group M: 156
Rodrigues (2005) Prevalence of ARV resistance mutations and impact of genotyping test in HIV patients with advance disease in Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Clin Virol PR HIV1 group M: 89
RT HIV1 group M: 86
Colonno (2004) Identification of I50L as the signature atazanavir (ATV)-resistance mutation in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients receiving ATV-containing regimens. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 61
PR HIV1 group M: 12
Bacheler (2001) Genotypic correlates of phenotypic resistance to efavirenz in virus isolates from patients failing nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 66
RT HIV1 group M: 67
RT HIV1 group M: 32
Papa (2002) HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in Northern Greece. Virus Res RT HIV1 group M: 50

 

2003
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Gonzales (2003) Colinearity of reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations detected by population-based sequencing. JAIDS RT HIV1 group M: 46
Venturi (2002) Divergent distribution of HIV-1 drug-resistant variants on and off antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 66
RT HIV1 group M: 66
Park (2003) Genotypic resistance of antiretroviral drugs among drug-naive HIV type 1 patients with the background of long-term access-easy zidovudine therapy. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 39
RT HIV1 group M: 47
Monno (2003) Mutational patterns of paired blood and rectal biopsies in HIV-infected patients on HAART. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 17
RT HIV1 group M: 17
Monno (2003) HIV-1 phenotypic susceptibility to lopinavir(LPV) and genotypic analysis in LPV/r-naive subjects with prior protease inhibitor experience. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 100
Vidal (2002) Genotypic and phenotypic resistance patterns in early-stage HIV-1-infected patients failing initial therapy with stavudine, didanosine and nevirapine. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 25
RT HIV1 group M: 26
Gao (1994) Genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2: Evidence for distinct sequence subtypes with differences in virus biology. J Virol RT HIV2: 2
Toni (2003) Presence of key drug resistance mutations in isolates from untreated patients of Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: ANRS 1257 study. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 100
RT HIV1 group M: 96
Brindeiro (2003) Brazilian network for HIV drug resistance surveillance (HIV-BResNet): A survey of chronically infected individuals. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 199
RT HIV1 group M: 191
Hanna (2003) Drug-selected resistance mutations and non-B subtypes in antiretroviral-naive adults with established human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 88
RT HIV1 group M: 88
Lan (2003) HIV type 1 isolates from 200 untreated individuals in Ho Chi Minh city(Vietnam): ANRS 1257 study. Large predominance of CRF01_AE and presence of major resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 172
RT HIV1 group M: 175
Bellosillo (2003) G190A substitution is associated with delavirdine(DLV) hypersusceptibility in vitro and clinical response with DLV intensification. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 1
RT HIV1 group M: 1
Brandin (2003) Pol gene sequence variation in Swedish HIV-2 patients failing antiretroviral therapy. ARHR PR HIV2: 30
RT HIV2: 30
Barditch-Crovo (2001) Phase I/II trial of the pharmacokinetics, safety, and antiretroviral activity of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 14
Huang (2003) Sequence characterization of the protease and partial reverse transcriptase proteins of the NED panel, an international HIV type 1 subtype reference and standards panel. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 42
PR HIV1 group O: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 42
RT HIV1 group O: 2
Masquelier (2002) Mechanisms of early virologic failure in antiretroviral-naive patients starting protease inhibitor-containing regimens: The APROVIR study. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 24
RT HIV1 group M: 23
Saah (2003) Treatment with indinavir, efavirenz, and adefovir after failure of nelfinavir therapy. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 43
RT HIV1 group M: 43
Foli (1996) In vitro selection and molecular characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with reduced sensitivity to 9-{2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl}adenine (PMEA). Antiviral Res RT HIV1 group M: 2
Wainberg (1999) In vitro selection and characterization of HIV-1 with reduced susceptibility to PMPA. Antivir Ther RT HIV1 group M: 5
Harrigan (1996) Significance of amino acid variation at human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase residue 210 for zidovudine susceptibility. J Virol RT HIV1 group M: 12
Srinivas (1998) Antiviral activities of 9-R-2-phosphonomethoxypropyl adenine (PMPA) and bis(isopropyloxymethylcarbonyl)PMPA against various drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus strains. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 11
Kagan (2005) Structural analysis of an HIV-1 protease I47A mutant resistant to the protease inhibitor lopinavir. Protein Sci PR HIV1 group M: 5
Njouom (2003) Assessment of HIV-1 subtyping for Cameroom strains using phylogenetic analysis of pol gene sequences. J Virol Methods PR HIV1 group M: 23
RT HIV1 group M: 30
Masquelier (2001) Genotypic and phenotypic resistance patterns of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants with insertions or deletions in the reverse transcriptase (RT): multicenter study of patients treated with RT inhibitors. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 48
Prado (2002) Amprenavir-resistant HIV-1 exhibits lopinavir cross-resistance and reduced replication capacity. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 6
Parkin (2003) HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutations that suppress zidovudine resistance also increase in vitro susceptibility to tenofovir, but not stavudine. IHDRW 2003 RT HIV1 group M: 3
Sevigny (2006) Antiviral activity and cross-resistance profile of P-1946, a novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor. Antiviral Res PR HIV1 group M: 11
Winters (2001) Variants other than aspartic acid at codon 69 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase gene affect susceptibility to nucleoside analogs. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 5
Dauber (2002) Altered substrate specificity of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 7
Romano (2002) Broad nucleoside-analogue resistance implications for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse-transcriptase mutations at codons 44 and 118. J Infect Dis RT HIV1 group M: 12
Miller (2003) Characterization of resistance mutation patterns emerging over 2 years during first-line antiretroviral treatment with tenofovir DF or stavudine and efavirenz. Antivir Ther RT HIV1 group M: 3
Soares (2003) A specific subtype C of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 circulates in Brazil. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 97
RT HIV1 group M: 93
Dumans (2002) Prevalence of protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance mutations over time in drug-naive human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive individuals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 54
RT HIV1 group M: 47
Harrigan (2002) A mutation in the 3' region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (Y318F) associated with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance. J Virol RT HIV1 group M: 7
Brindeiro (2002) Testing genotypic and phenotypic resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates of clade B and other clades from children failing antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 52
RT HIV1 group M: 52
Johnston (2004) Association of a novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease substrate cleft mutation, L23I, with protease inhibitor therapy and in vitro drug resistance. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 7
Condra (1995) In vivo emergence of HIV-1 variants resistant to multiple protease inhibitors. Nature PR HIV1 group M: 21
Gonzales (2003) Protease and reverse transcriptase mutation patterns in HIV-1 isolates from heavily treated persons: Comparison of isolates from northern California with isolates from other regions. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 472
RT HIV1 group M: 446
Baxter (2000) A randomized study of antiretroviral management based on plasma genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing in patients failing therapy. CPCRA 046 study team for the Terry Beirn community programs for clinical research on AIDS. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 153
RT HIV1 group M: 153
Roge (2003) K65R with and without S68: A new resistance profile in vivo detected in most patients failing abacavir, didanosine and stavudine. Antivir Ther RT HIV1 group M: 20
Maxeiner (2002) Selection of zidovudine resistance mutations and escape of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from antiretroviral pressure in stavudine-treated pediatric patients. J Infect Dis RT HIV1 group M: 30
Rodes (2002) Rapid assessment of phenotypic resistance to protease inhibitors in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group O: 5
van der Ende (2000) Antiviral resistance of biologic HIV-2 clones obtained from individuals on nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy. JAIDS RT HIV2: 6
Op de Coul (2000) Independent introduction of transmissible F/D recombinant HIV-1 from Africa into Belgium and the Netherlands. Virology PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
Luk (2001) Naturally occurring sequence polymorphisms within HIV type 1 group O protease. ARHR PR HIV1 group O: 28
Stanojevic (2002) HIV-1 subtypes in Yugoslavia. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 33
Yang (2000) Phylogenetic analysis of protease and transmembrane region of HIV type 1 group O. ARHR PR HIV1 group O: 20
Lee EJ (2005) Breast-milk shedding of drug-resistant HIV-1 subtype C in women exposed to single-dose nevirapine. J Infect Dis RT HIV1 group M: 47
Parkin (2003) Natural variation of drug susceptibility in wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 10
RT HIV1 group M: 10
Gordon (2003) Molecular characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C viruses from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: implications for vaccine and antiretroviral control strategies. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 72
RT HIV1 group M: 72
Tscherning-Casper (2000) Evidence of the existence of a new circulating recombinant form of HIV type 1 subtype A/J in Cameroon. The European network on the study of in utero transmission of HIV-1. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 15
Gonzales (2003) Extended spectrum of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutations in patients receiving multiple nucleoside analog inhibitors. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 1086
Maguire (2002) Emergence of resistance to protease inhibitor amprenavir in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients: Selection of four alternative viral protease genotypes and influence of viral susceptibility to coadministered reverse transcriptase nucleoside inhibitors. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 24
PR HIV1 group M: 28
Kijak (2001) Resistance profiles to antiretroviral drugs in HIV-1 drug-naive patients in Argentina. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 58
RT HIV1 group M: 57
Huang (2003) Amino acid substitutions at position 190 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase increase susceptibility to delavirdine and impair virus replication. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 6
Ziermann (2000) A mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease, N88S, that causes in vitro hypersensitivity to amprenavir. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 20
PR HIV1 group M: 20
Patick (1998) Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants isolated from patients treated with the protease inhibitor nelfinavir. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 102
PR HIV1 group M: 6

 

2002
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Holguin (2003) HIV-positive immigrants in the Canary Islands, Spain: Implications for public health in Europe. HIV Clin Trials PR HIV1 group M: 33
RT HIV1 group M: 29
Snoeck (2004) Rising prevalence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes in Belgium: 1983-2001. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 61
RT HIV1 group M: 59
Soares (2003) Epidemiologic and molecular characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in southern Brazil. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 12
RT HIV1 group M: 14
Pillay (2002) HIV-1 subtype C reverse transcriptase sequences from drug-naive pregnant women in South Africa. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 37
Handema (2002) Prevalence of drug-resistance-associated mutations in antiretroviral drug-naive Zambians infected with subtype C HIV-1. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 25
RT HIV1 group M: 28
Duque (2002) Prevalence of drug resistance and HIV-1 subtypes in antiretroviral inexperienced patients, during the year 2000 in Portugal. Direct Genbank Submission RT HIV1 group M: 104
Holguin (2002) HIV-1 subtype J recombinant viruses in Spain. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
Yang (2002) On-going generation of multiple forms of HIV-1 intersubtype recombinants in the Yunnan Province of China. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 39
RT HIV1 group M: 39
Naugler (2002) T69D/N pol mutation, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels, and syncytium-inducing phenotype are associated with CD4 cell depletion during didanosine therapy. J Infect Dis RT HIV1 group M: 50
Eshleman (2001) Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance in children receiving nucleoside analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors plus nevirapine, nelfinavir, or ritonavir (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 377). J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 229
RT HIV1 group M: 229
Cho (2002) Frequency of mutations conferring resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients in Korea. J Clin Microbiol RT HIV1 group M: 15
Eshleman (2001) Impact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) subtype on women receiving single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis to prevent hiv-1 vertical transmission (HIV network for prevention trials 012 study). J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 102
RT HIV1 group M: 102
Romano (2002) Treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir in heavily pretreated subjects failing multiple antiretroviral regimens in clinical practice. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 80
RT HIV1 group M: 80
Ariyoshi (2003) Patterns of point mutations associated with antiretroviral drug treatment failure in CRF01_AE (subtype E) infection differ from subtype B infection. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 57
RT HIV1 group M: 56
Ait-Khaled (2002) Mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase during therapy with abacavir, lamivudine, zidovudine in HIV-1 infected adults with no prior antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther RT HIV1 group M: 156
Dunne (2001) Comparison of genotyping and phenotyping methods for determining susceptibility of HIV-1 to antiretroviral drugs. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 17
RT HIV1 group M: 17
Holguin (2002) High prevalence of HIV-1 subtype G and natural polymorphisms at the protease gene among HIV-infected immigrants in Madrid. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 50
Margot (2002) Genotypic and phenotypic analyses of HIV-1 in antiretroviral-experienced patients treated with tenofovir DF. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 158
RT HIV1 group M: 158
Qari (2002) Comparative analysis of two commercial phenotypic assays for drug susceptibility testing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Clin Microbiol. PR HIV1 group M: 38
RT HIV1 group M: 38
Kantor (2002) Evolution of primary protease inhibitor resistance mutations during protease inhibitor salvage therapy. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 114
Vergne (2002) Resistance to antiretroviral treatment in Gabon: need for implementation of guidelines on antiretroviral therapy use and HIV-1 drug resistance monitoring in developing countries. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 32
RT HIV1 group M: 32
de Sa Filho (2002) Mutations associated with drug resistance in a population of drug naive HIV-1 infected individuals. Direct Genbank Submission RT HIV1 group M: 89
Fonjungo (2002) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group m protease in Cameroon: Genetic diversity and protease inhibitor mutational features. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 110
Snoeck (2002) Prevalence and origin of HIV-1 group M subtypes among patients attending a Belgian hospital in 1999. Virus Res PR HIV1 group M: 17
RT HIV1 group M: 18
Zachary (2001) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 hypersusceptibility to amprenavir in vitro can be associated with virus load response to treatment in vivo. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 2
Weidle (2001) Resistance to antiretroviral therapy among patients in Uganda. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 31
RT HIV1 group M: 31
Holguin (2001) Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Non-B subtypes in foreigners living in Madrid, Spain, and comparison of the performances of the AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR version 1.0 and the new automated version 1.5. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 25
Servais (2001) Comparison of DNA sequencing and a line probe assay for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance mutations in patients failing highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV1 group M: 39
RT HIV1 group M: 95
Si-Mohamed (2000) Selection of drug-resistant variants in the female genital tract of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 42
RT HIV1 group M: 43
Thomson (2001) HIV-1 genetic diversity in Galicia Spain: BG intersubtype recombinant viruses circulating among injecting drug users. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 21
RT HIV1 group M: 21
Rousseau (2000) Patterns of resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs in extensively treated HIV-1-infected patients with failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 22
RT HIV1 group M: 22
Parkin (2000) Loss of antiretroviral drug susceptibility at low viral load during early virological failure in treatment-experienced patients. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 50
RT HIV1 group M: 50
Huang (1999) Complex interactions involving multiple amino acid substitutions alter NNRTI susceptibility. Antivir Ther RT HIV1 group M: 15
Gong (2000) In vitro resistance profile of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor BMS-232632. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 22
Atkinson (2000) Correlation between human immunodeficiency virus genotypic resistance and virologic response in patients receiving nelfinavir monotherapy or nelfinavir with lamivudine and zidovudine. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 49
Coakley (2000) Phenotypic and genotypic resistance patterns of HIV-1 isolates derived from individuals treated with didanosine and stavudine. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 76
Huang (2000) A novel HIV-1 RT mutation (M230L) confers NNRTI resistance and dose-dependent stimulation of replication. Antivir Ther RT HIV1 group M: 3
RT HIV1 group M: 3
Lennerstrand (2001) Biochemical mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase resistance to stavudine. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 13
Miller (2000) HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) genotype and susceptibility to RT inhibitors during abacavir monotherapy and combination therapy. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 118
Hertogs (2000) A novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase mutational pattern confers phenotypic lamivudine resistance in the absence of mutation 184V. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 18
Petropoulos (2000) A novel phenotypic drug susceptibility assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 9
PR HIV1 group M: 7
RT HIV1 group M: 9
RT HIV1 group M: 25
Becker-Pergola (2000) Analysis of HIV type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase in antiretroviral drug naive Ugandan adults. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 27
RT HIV1 group M: 27
Pellegrin (1999) Emergence of zidovudine and multidrug-resistance mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase gene in therapy-naive patients receiving stavudine plus didanosine combination therapy. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 52
Imamichi (2000) High-level resistance to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine due to a deletion in the reverse transcriptase gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol RT HIV1 group M: 12
Fujiwara (1998) S-1153 inhibits replication of known drug-resistant strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 17
Cabana (1999) Emergence and genetic evolution of HIV-1 variants with mutations conferring resistance to multiple reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors. J Med Virol PR HIV1 group M: 54
RT HIV1 group M: 38
Larder (1999) A family of insertion mutations between codons 67 and 70 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase confer multinucleoside analog resistance. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 5
Deeks (1999) Novel four-drug salvage treatment regimens after failure of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor-containing regimen: antiviral activity and correlation of baseline phenotypic drug susceptibility with virologic outcome. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 15
RT HIV1 group M: 15
Ho (1994) Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type1 variants with increased resistance to a C2-symmetric protease inhibitor. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 4
Tisdale (1995) Cross-resistance analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants individually selected for resistance to five different protease inhibitors. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 10
Shulman (2000) Efavirenz- and adefovir dipivoxil-based salvage therapy in highly treatment-experienced patients: Clinical and genotypic predictors of virologic response. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 84
RT HIV1 group M: 87
Zolopa (1999) HIV-1 genotypic resistance patterns predict response to saquinavir/ritonavir in patients in whom previous protease inhibitor therapy failed. Ann Intern Med PR HIV1 group M: 58
RT HIV1 group M: 53
Lawrence (1999) Clinical resistance patterns and responses to two sequential protease inhibitor regimens in saquinavir and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-experienced persons. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 27
RT HIV1 group M: 24
Partaledis (1995) In vitro selection and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates with reduced sensitivity to hydroxyethylamino sulfonamide inhibitors of HIV-1 aspartyl protease. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 12
Carrillo (1998) In vitro selection and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants with increased resistance to ABT-378. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 5
Palmer (1999) Highly drug-resistant HIV-1 clinical isolates are cross-resistant to many antiretroviral compounds in current clinical development. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 2
Kellam (1992) Fifth mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase contributes to the development of high-level resistance to zidovudine. PNAS RT HIV1 group M: 6
Richman (1991) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutants resistant to nonnucleoside inhibitors of reverse transcriptase arise in tissue culture. PNAS RT HIV1 group M: 1
Larder (1992) 3'-Azido-3'-Deoxythymidine resistance suppressed by a mutation conferring human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 10
Young (1995) L-743,726 (DMP-266): a novel, highly potent nonnucleoside inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 13
Tisdale (1997) Combination of mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase required for resistance to the carbocyclic nucleoside 1592U89. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 10
Winters (1998) A 6-basepair insert in the reverse transcriptase gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 confers resistance to multiple nucleoside inhibitors. J Clin Invest PR HIV1 group M: 9
RT HIV1 group M: 10
RT HIV1 group M: 11
Tisdale (1993) Rapid in vitro selection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistant to 3'-thiacytidine inhibitors due to a mutation in the YMDD region of reverse transcriptase. PNAS RT HIV1 group M: 10
St Clair (1991) Resistance to ddI and sensitivity to AZT induced by a mutation in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Science RT HIV1 group M: 3
Shirasaka (1995) Emergence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants with resistance to multiple dideoxynucleosides in patients receiving therapy with dideoxynucleosides. PNAS RT HIV1 group M: 4
Ruiz (1996) Efficacy of triple combination therapy with zidovudine (ZDV) plus zalcitabine (ddC) plus lamivudine (3TC) versus double (ZDV+3TC) combination therapy in patients previously treated with ZDV+ddC. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 41
Patick (1996) Antiviral and resistance studies of AG1343, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus protease. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 23
Mellors (1995) Novel mutations in reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reduce susceptibility to foscarnet in laboratory and clinical isolates. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 7
Larder (1993) Convergent combination therapy can select viable multidrug-resistant HIV-1 in vitro. Nature RT HIV1 group M: 6
Lacey (1994) Novel mutation (V75T) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase confers resistance to 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'- dideoxythymidine in cell culture. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 8
Kellam (1994) Zidovudine treatment results in the selection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants whose genotypes confer increasing levels of drug resistance. J Gen Virol RT HIV1 group M: 15
Jacobsen (1995) Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutants with decreased sensitivity to proteinase inhibitor Ro 31-8959. Virology PR HIV1 group M: 4
Dueweke (1993) A mutation in reverse transcriptase of bis(heteroaryl)piperazine- resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 that confers increased sensitivity to other nonnucleoside inhibitors. PNAS RT HIV1 group M: 5
Byrnes (1993) Comprehensive mutant enzyme and viral variant assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase resistance to nonnucleoside inhibitors. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 11
Mulato (1998) Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants isolated from AIDS patients after prolonged adefovir dipivoxil therapy. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 10
Winters (1998) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease genotypes and in vitro protease inhibitor susceptibilities of isolates from individuals who were switched to other protease inhibitors after long-term saquinavir treatment. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 17
RT HIV1 group M: 3
Shafer (1994) Combination therapy with zidovudine and didanosine selects for drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains with unique patterns of pol gene mutations. J Infect Dis RT HIV1 group M: 58
Molla (1996) Ordered accumulation of mutations in HIV protease confers resistance to ritonavir. Nat Med PR HIV1 group M: 94
PR HIV1 group M: 4
Fitzgibbon (1992) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pol gene mutations which cause decreased susceptibility to 2',3'-dideoxycytidine. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 2
RT HIV1 group M: 3
Shafer (1995) Drug resistance and heterogeneous long-term virologic responses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 - infected subjects to zidovudine and didanosine combination therapy. J Infect Dis RT HIV1 group M: 48
Demeter (2000) Delavirdine susceptibilities and associated reverse transcriptase mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type I isolates from patients in a phase I/II trial of delavirdine monotherapy (ACTG 260). AAC RT HIV1 group M: 67
Schapiro (1996) The effect of high-dose saquinavir on viral load and CD4+ T-cell counts in HIV-infected patients. Ann Intern Med PR HIV1 group M: 71

 

2001
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Sutthent (2002) Effect of perinatal short-course zidovudine on the clinical and virological manifestations of HIV-1 subtype E infection in infants. J Clin Virol RT HIV1 group M: 19
Piyasujabul (2002) Effect of perinatal short-course zidovudine on the clinical and virological manifestations of HIV-1 subtype E infection in infants. J Clin Virol. RT HIV1 group M: 11
Fitzgibbon (2001) Emergence of drug resistance mutations in a group of HIV-infected children taking nelfinavir-containing regimens. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 28
RT HIV1 group M: 23
Cornelissen (2000) Spread of distinct human immunodeficiency virus type 1 AG recombinant lineages in Africa. J Gen Virol PR HIV1 group M: 20
RT HIV1 group M: 20
Vicente (2001) Genetic variability of HIV-1 protease from Nigeria and correlation with protease inhibitors drug resistance. Virus Genes PR HIV1 group M: 10
Thomson (2000) Widespread circulation of a B/F intersubtype recombinant form among HIV-1-infected individuals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 38
Pandrea (2001) HIV type 1 genetic diversity and genotypic drug susceptibility in the Republic of Moldova. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 6
RT HIV1 group M: 6
Nkengasong (2000) Distribution of HIV-1 subtypes among HIV-seropositive patients in the interior of Cote d'Ivoire. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 12
Masciotra (2000) Evidence of a high frequency of HIV-1 subtype F infections in a heterosexual population in Buenos Aires, Argentina. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 42
Caumont (2001) Sequence analysis of env C2/V3, gag p17/p24, and pol protease regions of 25 HIV type 1 isolates from Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 24
RT HIV1 group M: 2
Parkin (2001) Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a large database of patient samples reveals distinct patterns of protease inhibitor cross-resistance. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 16
Yahi (2001) Use of drug resistance sequence data for the systematic detection of non-B human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes: How to create a sentinel site for monitoring the genetic diversity of HIV-1 at a country scale. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 68
RT HIV1 group M: 67
Van Laethem (2000) Patient HIV strains carrying the multiple nucleoside resistance mutations are cross-resistant to abacavir. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 5
Pasquier (2001) HIV-1 subtyping using phylogenetic analysis of pol gene sequences. J Virol Methods PR HIV1 group M: 33
RT HIV1 group M: 51
Servais (2001) Variant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteases and response to combination therapy including a protease inhibitor. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 113
Walter (2000) Phenotypic HIV-1 resistance correlates with treatment outcome of nelfinavir salvage therapy. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 19
Balotta (2001) Increasing prevalence of non-clade B HIV-1 strains heterosexuals, as monitored by the analysis of the RT and protease sequences. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 19
RT HIV1 group M: 19
Weidle (2000) Presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, group M, non-B subtypes, Bronx, New York: A sentinal site for monitoring HIV genetic diversity in the United States. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 6
Koch (2001) Genetic analysis of HIV type 1 strains in Bujumbura (Burundi): Predominance of subtype C variant. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 18
RT HIV1 group M: 18
Brun (2001) Patterns of protease inhibitor cross resistance in viral isolates with reduced susceptibility to lopinavir. CROI 2001 PR HIV1 group M: 13
Parkin (2001) Discordance between genotype-based predictions of protease inhibitor susceptibility and actual phenotype in HIV-1 isolates containing mutations at positions 82 and 90: Modulatory effects of mutations at secondary positions. ICAAC 2000 PR HIV1 group M: 11
de Baar (2000) Natural residues versus antiretroviral drug-selected mutations in HIV type 1 group O reverse transcriptase and protease related to virological drug failure in vivo. ARHR PR HIV1 group O: 5
RT HIV1 group O: 5
Jackson (2000) Identification of the K103N resistance mutation in Ugandan women receiving nevirapine to prevent HIV-1 vertical transmission. AIDS RT HIV1 group M: 15
Bacheler (2000) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutations selected in patients failing efavirenz combination therapy. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 632
RT HIV1 group M: 632
Quinones-Mateu (1998) Analysis of pol gene heterogeneity, viral quasispecies, and drug resistance in Individuals infected with Group O strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol RT HIV1 group O: 6
Holguin (2000) Protease gene analysis of HIV Type 1 non-B subtypes in Spain. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 15
Holguin (2000) Recombinant human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 circulating in Spain. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 4
RT HIV1 group M: 13
Young (1998) Resistance mutations in protease and reverse transcriptase genes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from patients with combination antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 39
RT HIV1 group M: 39
Ramos (1999) Dual and recombinant infections: an integral part of the HIV-1 epidemic in Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 32
Tanuri (1999) Genetic variation and susceptibilities to protease inhibitors among subtype B and F isolates in Brazil. AAC PR HIV1 group M: 26

 

2000
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Jorgensen (2000) Genotypic and phenotypic nevirapine resistance correlates with virological failure during salvage therapy including abacavir and nevirapine. Antivir Ther PR HIV1 group M: 37
RT HIV1 group M: 36
Balotta (2000) Prevalence of multiple dideoxynucleoside analogue resistance (MddNR) in a multicenter cohort of HIV-1 infected Italian patients with virologic failure. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 132
RT HIV1 group M: 149
Brindeiro (1999) Sequence diversity of the reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from untreated Brazilian individuals. AAC RT HIV1 group M: 18
Belec (2000) High levels of drug resistance human immunodeficiency virus variants in patients exhibiting increasing CD4 + t cell counts despite virologic failure of protease inhibitors containing antiretroviral combination therapy. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 100
Sevin (2000) Methods for investigating the relationship between drug-susceptibility phenotype and HIV-1 genotype with applications to ACTG 333. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 71
Shulman (2001) Genotypic correlates of a virologic response to stavudine after zidovudine monotherapy. JAIDS RT HIV1 group M: 26
Op de Coul (2000) Genetic evidence of multiple transmissions of HIV type 1 subtype F within Romania from adult blood donors and to children. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 14
RT HIV1 group M: 14
Rodes (2000) Emergence of drug resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-infected subjects undergoing antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Microbiol PR HIV2: 4
RT HIV2: 11
Falloon (2000) Combination therapy with amprenavir, abacavir, and efavirenz in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients failing a protease-inhibitor regimen: pharmacokinetic drug interactions and antiviral activity. Clin Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 20
RT HIV1 group M: 20
Venturi (2000) Antiretroviral resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase and protease from paired cerebrospinal fluid and plasma samples. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 26
RT HIV1 group M: 42
Andersson (1999) Molecular characterization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and -2 in individuals from Guinea-Bissau with single or dual infections: predominance of a distinct HIV-1 subtype A/G recombinant in west Africa. Virology RT HIV1 group M: 7
Duque (2003) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant B/G subtypes circulating in Coimbra, Portugal. Clin Microbiol Infect PR HIV1 group M: 29
Milazzo (1999) Evidence of stavudine-related phenotypic resistance among zidovudine-pretreated HIV-1-infected subjects receiving a therapeutic regimen of stavudine plus lamivudine. JAIDS RT HIV1 group M: 40
Gatanaga (1999) Anti-HIV effect of saquinavir combined with ritonavir is limited by previous long-term therapy with protease inhibitors. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 15
Gao (1992) Human infection by genetically diverse SIVSM-related HIV-2 in west Africa. Nature RT HIV2: 3

 

1999
Author (yr)TitleCitationIsolate
Masquelier (1999) Zidovudine resensitization and dual HIV-1 resistance to zidovudine and lamivudine in the Delta lamivudine roll-over study. Antivir Ther RT HIV1 group M: 48
Flores (1999) HIV-1 subtype F in single and dual infections in Puerto Rico: A potential sentinel site for monitoring novel genetic HIV variants in north America. Emerg Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 19
Venturi (1999) Genotypic resistance to zidovudine as a predictor of failure of subsequent therapy with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis RT HIV1 group M: 78
Orlandi (1998) Analysis of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase gene mutations in infected children treated with zidovudine. JAIDS RT HIV1 group M: 51
Craig (1998) HIV protease genotype and viral sensitivity to HIV protease inhibitors following saquinavir therapy. AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 38
Ruiz (1998) Efficacy of adding indinavir to previous reverse transcriptase nucleoside analogues in relation to genotypic and phenotypic resistance development in advanced HIV-1-infected patients. JAIDS PR HIV1 group M: 19
Heredia (1997) Genetic analysis of an HIV type 2 subtype B virus from a Spanish individual with AIDS. ARHR RT HIV2: 1
Heredia (1997) Evidence of HIV-2 infection in Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa): Partial genetic analysis of a B subtype virus. ARHR RT HIV2: 1
Albert (1994) Analysis of a rape case by direct sequencing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pol and gag genes. J Virol RT HIV1 group M: 23
Lin (1994) Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from patients on prolonged stavudine therapy. J Infect Dis RT HIV1 group M: 24
Markowitz (1998) A preliminary evaluation of nelfinavir mesylate, an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protease, to treat HIV infection. J Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 8
Shafer (1999) Sequence and drug susceptibility of HIV-1 type C protease from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconverters in Zimbabwe. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 12
Shafer (1998) Multiple concurrent reverse transcriptase and protease mutations and multidrug resistance of HIV-1 isolates from heavily treated patients. Ann Intern Med PR HIV1 group M: 16
RT HIV1 group M: 14
Apetrei (1998) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype F reverse transcriptase sequence and drug susceptibility. J Virol RT HIV1 group M: 14
Descamps (1997) Susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O isolates to antiretroviral agents: In vitro phenotypic and genotypic analyses. J Virol PR HIV1 group O: 10
RT HIV1 group O: 10
Zhang (1997) Drug resistance during indinavir therapy is caused by mutations in the protease gene and in its gag substrate cleavage sites. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 60
Pieniazek (1998) Evidence for the introduction of multiple HIV-1 subtypes in Lebanon. Emerg Infect Dis PR HIV1 group M: 25
PR HIV2: 1
Nijhuis (1997) Lamivudine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants (184V) require multiple amino acid changes to become co-resistant to zidovudine in vivo. J Infect Dis RT HIV1 group M: 16
Ellenberger (1999) Genetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus in Abidjan, Ivory Coast reveals predominance of HIV type 1 subtype A and introduction of subtype G. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 20
Vallejo (1998) Tropism, co-receptor use, and genetic characterization of the V3 loop and the protease gene of HIV-1 group O isolates. JAIDS PR HIV1 group O: 3
Quinones-Mateu (1995) Molecular characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from Venezuela. ARHR RT HIV1 group M: 8
Cornelissen (1997) Pol diversity of five HIV-1 subtypes: Evidence for naturally occurring mutations that contribute to drug resistance, limited recombination patterns, and common ancestry for subtypes B and D. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 42
RT HIV1 group M: 42
Shafer (1997) Sequence and drug susceptibility of subtype C reverse transcriptase from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconverters in Zimbabwe. J Virol RT HIV1 group M: 12
Schmit (1996) Resistance-related mutations in the HIV-1 protease gene of patients treated for 1 year with the protease inhibitors ritonavir (ABT-538). AIDS PR HIV1 group M: 15
Condra (1996) Genetic correlates of in vivo viral resistance to indinavir, a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor. J Virol PR HIV1 group M: 57
Yamaguchi (1995) Clinical isolates of HIV-1 contain few pre-existing proteinase inhibitor resistance-conferring mutations. Biochim Biophys Acta PR HIV1 group M: 21
Winslow (1995) Limited sequence diversity of the HIV type 1 protease gene from clinical isolates and in vitro susceptibility to HIV protease inhibitors. ARHR PR HIV1 group M: 13
Soto-Ramirez (1996) HIV-1 pol sequences from India fit distinct subtype pattern. JAIDS RT HIV1 group M: 5