Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database - A curated public database designed to represent, store, and analyze the divergent forms of data

underlying HIV drug resistance.

New Submissions

July 12, 2013
Prevalence of transmitted drug resistance in >1,600 persons in 12 Mexican states between 2005 and 2010.
Avila-Rios S, Garcia-Morales C, Garrido-Rodriguez D, Ormsby CE, Hernandez-Juan R, Andrade-Villanueva J, Gonzalez-Hernandez LA, Torres-Escobar I, Navarro-Alvarez S, Reyes-Teran G. National prevalence and trends of HIV transmitted drug resistance in Mexico. PLoS ONE , 2012

Complete RT sequences pre- and post-first line ARV therapy in South Africa.
Brehm JH, Koontz DL, Wallis CL, Shutt KA, Sanne I, Wood R, McIntyre JA, Stevens WS, Sluis-Cremer N, Mellors JW. Frequent emergence of N348I in HIV-1 subtype C reverse transcriptase with failure of initial therapy reduces susceptibility to reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. Clin Infect Dis , 2012

RT sequences from Cambodian children receiving D4T/3TC/NVP.
Coetzer M, Westley B, Delong A, Tray C, Sophearin D, Nerrienet E, Schreier L, Kantor R. Extensive drug resistance in HIV-infected Cambodian children who are undetected as failing first-line antiretroviral therapy by WHO 2010 Guidelines. ARHR , 2013

Complete RT and PR sequences from 700 ARV-experienced and ARV-naive patients in China, 2004-2010.
Li H, Geng Q, Guo W, Zhuang D, Li L, Liu Y, Bao Z, Liu S, Li J. Screening for and verification of novel mutations associated with drug resistance in the HIV type 1 subtype B in China. PLoS ONE , 2012

RT and PR sequences from ARV-treated patients in Uganda.
Reynolds SJ, Laeyendecker O, Nakigozi G, Gallant JE, Huang W, Hudelson SE, Quinn TC, Newell K, Serwadda D, Gray RH, Wawer MJ, Eshleman SH. Antiretroviral drug susceptibility among HIV-infected adults failing antiretroviral therapy in Rakai, Uganda. ARHR , 2012

RT and PR sequences from newly diagnosed patients in Canada between 2002 and 2008.
Ragonnet-Cronin M, Aris-Brosou S, Joanisse I, Merks H, Vallee D, Caminiti K, Rekart M, Krajden M, Cook D, Kim J, Malloch L, Sandstrom P, Brooks J. Genetic diversity as a marker for timing infection in HIV-infected patients: Evaluation of a 6-month window and comparison with BED. J Infect Dis , 2012

RT and PR sequences from 1,630 European ARV-naive persons in the SPREAD study between 2002 and 2007.
Frentz D, Wensing AM, Albert J, Paraskevis D, Abecasis AB, Hamouda O, Jorgensen LB, Kucherer C, Struck D, Schmit JC, Asjo B, Balotta C, Beshkov D, Camacho RJ, Clotet B, Coughlan S, De Wit S, Griskevicius A, Grossman Z, Horban A, Kolupajeva T, Korn K, Kostrikis LG, Liitsola K, Linka M, Nielsen C, Otelea D, Paredes R, Poljak M, Puchhammer-Stockl E, Sonnerborg A, Stanekova D, Stanojevic M, Vandamme AM, Boucher CA, Van de Vijver DA. Limited cross-border infections in patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Europe. Retrovirology , 2013

TDR in recently infected ARV-naive female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda between 2008 and 2011.
Ssemwanga D, Ndembi N, Lyagoba F, Magambo B, Kapaata A, Bukenya J, Lubega GW, Bertagnolio S, Vandepitte J, Grosskurth H, Kaleebu P. Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance among drug-naive female sex workers with recent infection in Kampala, Uganda. Clin Infect Dis , 2012

TDR in female sex workers from El Salvador, 2008.
Murillo W, Lorenzana de Rivera I, Albert J, Guardado ME, Nieto AI, Paz-Bailey G. Prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance among female sex workers and men who have sex with men in El Salvador, Central America. J Med Virol , 2012

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa.
Caron M, Lekana-Douki SE, Makuwa M, Obiang-Ndong GP, Biba O, Nkoghe D, Kazanji M. Prevalence, genetic diversity and antiretroviral drugs resistance-associated mutations among untreated HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa. BMC Infect Dis , 2012

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in western Yunan, China 2010.
Chen M, Ma Y, Duan S, Xing H, Yao S, Su Y, Luo H, Yang L, Chen H, Fu L, Qu A, Ou CY, Jia M, Lu L. Genetic diversity and drug resistance among newly diagnosed and antiretroviral treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in western Yunnan: a hot area of viral recombination in China. BMC Infect Dis , 2012

IN sequences from ARV-naive persons in South Africa in 2008.
Bessong PO, Nwobegahay J Genetic analysis of HIV-1 integrase sequences from treatment naive individuals in northeastern South Africa. Int J Mol Sci , 2013

IN sequences from INI-naive persons in Thailand
Wilantho A, Chareanchim W, Kaewpoonsri N, Chuenchitra C, Jenwitheesuk E. HIV-1 integrase isolated from infected patients in Thailand. Unpublished , 2011

TDR in Iran between 2010 and 2011.
Jahanbakhsh F, Hattori J, Matsuda M, Ibe S, Monavari SH, Memarnejadian A, Aghasadeghi MR, Mostafavi E, Mohraz M, Jabbari H, Kamali K, Keyvani H, Azadmanesh K, Sugiura W. Prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Iran between 2010 and 2011. PLoS ONE , 2012

IN sequences from raltegravir-experienced patients in Italy.
Armenia D, Vandenbroucke I, Fabeni L, Van Marck H, Cento V, D Arrigo R, Van Wesenbeeck L, Scopelliti F, Micheli V, Bruzzone B, Lo Caputo S, Aerssens J, Rizzardini G, Tozzi V, Narciso P, Antinori A, Stuyver L, Perno CF, Ceccherini-Silberstein F. Study of genotypic and phenotypic HIV-1 dynamics of integrase mutations during raltegravir treatment: A refined analysis by ultra-deep 454 pyrosequencing. J Infect Dis , 2012

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in Rwanda, 2005.
Kemal KS, Anastos K, Weiser B, Ramirez CM, Shi Q, Burger H. Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 subtypes in Rwanda. ARHR , 2013

RT and PR sequences from Liaoning Province, China, 2005-2009.
Han X, An M, Zhao B, Duan S, Yang S, Xu J, Zhang M, McGoogan JM, Takebe Y, Shang H. High prevalence of HIV-1 intersubtype BC recombinants among injecting drug users in Dehong, China. PLoS ONE , 2013

In vitro rilpivirine susceptibilities of site-directed mutants with NNRTI-resistance mutations.
Van Eygen V, Rimsky LT, Picchio G, Vingerhoets J Comparison of the Antivirogram and PhenoSense assays to determine phenotypic susceptibility to rilpivirine in patient samples from the Phase III ECHO and THRIVE trials Unpublished, 2012

RT and PR sequences of subtype C viruses in Brazil.
Alcantara KC, Reis MN, Cardoso LP, Bello G, Stefani MM. Increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 subtype C in inland central western Brazil J Med Virol , 2013

RT and PR sequences from newly diagnosed persons in Morocco, 2004-2005.
Akrim M, Lemrabet S, Elharti E, Gray RR, Tardy JC, Cook RL, Salemi M, Andre P, Azarian T, Aouad RE. HIV-1 Subtype distribution in Morocco based on national sentinel surveillance data 2004-2005. AIDS Res Ther , 2012

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in China, 2011.
Wu J, Meng Z, Xu J, Lei Y, Jin L, Zhong P, Han R, Su B. New emerging recombinant HIV-1 strains and close transmission linkage of HIV-1 strains in the Chinese MSM population indicate a new epidemic risk. PLoS ONE , 2013

RT and PR sequences from heavily treated children in Argentina.
Aulicino PC, Bello G, Guimaraes ML, Ruchansky D, Rocco C, Mangano A, Morgado MG, Sen L. Longitudinal analysis of HIV-1 BF1 recombinant strains in vertically infected children from Argentina reveals a decrease in CRF12_BF pol gene mosaic patterns and high diversity of BF unique recombinant forms. Infect Genet Evol , 2011

In vitro susceptibility of IN site-directed mutants.
McColl DJ, Chen X. Strand transfer inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase: Bringing IN a new era of antiretroviral therapy. Antiviral Res , 2010

RT, PR, and IN CRF01_AE sequences from southern China between 2009 and 2010.
Zeng H, Sun Z, Liang S, Li L, Jiang Y, Liu W, Sun B, Li J, Yang R. Emergence of a new HIV type 1 CRF01_AE variant in Guangxi, Southern China. ARHR , 2012

IN sequences from 590 INI-naive persons in Switzerland and France in 2008.
Reigadas S, Marcelin AG, Houssaini A, Yerly S, Descamps D, Plantier JC, Ruffault A, Amiel C, Trabaud MA, Flandre P, Fleury H, Masquelier B. HIV-1 integrase variability and relationship with drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive and -experienced patients with different HIV-1 subtypes. J Antimicrob Chemother , 2013

RT, PR, and IN sequences from ARV-naive persons in Cyprus, 2007-2009.
Kousiappa I, Achilleos C, Hezka J, Lazarou Y, Othonos K, Demetriades I, Kostrikis LG. Molecular characterization of HIV type 1 strains from newly diagnosed patients in Cyprus (2007-2009) recovers multiple clades including unique recombinant strains and lack of transmitted drug resistance. ARHR , 2011

RT and PR sequences from acutely infected persons in Switzerland, 1999-2007.
Castro E, Khonkarly M, Ciuffreda D, Burgisser P, Cavassini M, Yerly S, Pantaleo G, Bart PA. HIV-1 drug resistance transmission networks in southwest Switzerland. ARHR , 2010

IN G118R and raltegravir resistance.
Malet I, Fourati S, Charpentier C, Morand-Joubert L, Armenia D, Wirden M, Sayon S, Van Houtte M, Ceccherini-Silberstein F, Brun-Vezinet F, Perno CF, Descamps D, Capt A, Calvez V, Marcelin AG. The HIV-1 integrase G118R mutation confers raltegravir resistance to the CRF02_AG HIV-1 subtype. J Antimicrob Chemother , 2011

In vitro susceptibility of site-directed mutants with IN mutations H51Y and R263K.
Mesplede T, Quashie PK, Osman N, Han Y, Singhroy DN, Lie Y, Petropoulos CJ, Huang W, Wainberg MA. Viral fitness cost prevents HIV-1 from evading dolutegravir drug pressure. Retrovirology , 2013

IN sequences from INI-naive patients in Mozambique.
Oliveira MF, Ramalho DB, Abreu CM, Vubil A, Mabunda N, Ismael N, Francisco C, Jani IV, Tanuri A. Genetic diversity and naturally polymorphisms in HIV type 1 integrase isolates from Maputo, Mozambique: Implications for integrase inhibitors. ARHR, 2012

IN sequences from ARV-naive persons in sub-Saharan Africa and France.
Monleau M, Aghokeng AF, Nkano BA, Chaix ML, Peeters M. Drug resistance mutations of HIV type 1 non-B viruses to integrase inhibitors in treatment-naive patients from sub-saharan countries and discordant interpretations. ARHR , 2012

IN sequences from INI-naive persons in Thailand.
Luu QP, Dean J, Do TT, Carr MJ, Dunford L, Coughlan S, Connell J, Nguyen HT, Hall WW, Nguyen Thi LA HIV type 1 coreceptor tropism, CCR5 genotype, and integrase inhibitor resistance profiles in Vietnam: Implications for the introduction of new antiretroviral regimens. ARHR, 2012

IN sequences from ARV-naive persons in Korea.
Kim JY, Kim EJ, Choi JY, Kwon OK, Kim GJ, Choi SY, Kim SS. Genetic variation of the HIV-1 integrase region in newly diagnosed anti-retroviral drug-naive patients with HIV/AIDS in Korea J Clin Microbiol Infect , 2011

IN sequences from INI-naive persons in Brazil.
Iamarino A, de Melo FL, Braconi CT, Zanotto PM. BF integrase genes of HIV-1 circulating in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a recurrent recombination region. PLoS ONE , 2012

IN sequences in RAL recipients.
Canducci F, Ceresola ER, Boeri E, Spagnuolo V, Cossarini F, Castagna A, Lazzarin A, Clementi M. Cross-resistance profile of the novel integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (S/GSK1349572) using clonal viral variants selected in patients failing raltegravir J Infect Dis , 2011

IN sequences from acutely infected persons in U.S. and Australia.
Brockman MA, Chopera DR, Olvera A, Brumme CJ, Sela J, Markle TJ, Martin E, Carlson JM, Le AQ, McGovern R, Cheung PK, Kelleher AD, Jessen H, Markowitz M, Rosenberg E, Frahm N, Sanchez J, Mallal S, John M, Harrigan PR, Heckerman D, Brander C, Walker BD, Brumme ZL. Uncommon pathways of immune escape attenuate HIV-1 integrase replication capacity. J Virol , 2012

In vitro susceptibility of site-directed mutants with common raltegravir-resistance mutations.
Van Wesenbeeck L, Rondelez E, Feyaerts M, Verheyen A, Van der Borght K, Smits V, Cleybergh C, De Wolf H, Van Baelen K, Stuyver LJ. Cross-resistance profile determination of two second-generation HIV-1 integrase inhibitors using a panel of recombinant viruses derived from raltegravir-treated clinical isolates. AAC , 2011

IN sequences from recently infected INI-naive persons in Canada, 2009.
Brenner BG, Lowe M, Moisi D, Hardy I, Gagnon S, Charest H, Baril JG, Wainberg MA, Roger M. Subtype diversity associated with the development of HIV-1 resistance to integrase inhibitors J Med Virol , 2011

In vitro NNRTI susceptibility of site-directed mutants with V106I + V179D.
Gatanaga H, Ode H, Hachiya A, Hayashida T, Sato H, Oka S. Combination of V106I and V179D polymorphic mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase confers resistance to efavirenz and nevirapine but not etravirine. AAC , 2010

RT and PR sequences in ARV-naive persons in China, 2011
Chen M, Yang C, Dong L, Su Y, Yang L, Shi Y, Chen H, Yan W, Ma Y. HIV-1 genotypes and drug resistance threshold survey in Honghe Prefecture of Yunnan Province in 2011 Unpublished, 2013

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in Thailand, 2004-2005.
Kijak GH, Tovanabutra S, Rerks-Ngarm S, Nitayaphan,S, Eamsila C, Kunasol P, Khamboonruang C, Thongcharoen P, Namwat C, Premsri N, Benenson M., Morgan P, Bose M Sanders-Buell,E., Paris,R., Robb,M.L., Birx,D.L., De Souza,M.S., McCutchan,F.E., Michael,N.L. and Kim,J.H. HIV-1 Prevalence and Subtype Distribution in HIV-1 Positive Volunteers Deferred from Enrollment in a Phase III Prime-Boost HIV-1 Vaccine Trial in Thailand Unpublished, 2012

RT and PR sequences from 165 acutely infected Europeans in the Cascade study.
Brown AE, Gifford RJ, Clewley JP, Kucherer C, Masquelier B, Porter K, Balotta C, Back NK, Jorgensen LB, de Mendoza C, Bhaskaran K, Gill ON, Johnson AM, Pillay D. Phylogenetic reconstruction of transmission events from individuals with acute HIV infection J Infect Dis , 2009

TDR in Sao Paulo Brazil, 2008-2009.
Ferreira JL, Rodrigues R, Lanca AM, de Almeida VC, Rocha SQ, Ragazzo TG, Estevam DL, Brigido LF. Transmitted drug resistance among people living with HIV/AIDS at major cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Adv Virol , 2013

RT and PR sequences from 300 ARV-naive persons in Brazil, 2009.
Alencar CS, Sabino EC, Carvalho SM, Leao SC, Carneiro-Proietti AB, Capuani L, Oliveira CL, Carrick D, Birch RJ, Goncalez TT, Keating S, Swanson PA, Hackett J Jr, Busch MP. HIV genotypes and primary drug resistance among HIV seropositive blood donors in Brazil: Role of infected blood donors as sentinel populations for molecular surveillance of HIV. JAIDS , 2013

RT, PR, and IN sequences from CRF53_01B viruses in Malaysia.
Chow WZ, Al-Darraji H, Lee YM, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK. Genome sequences of a novel HIV-1 CRF53_01B identified in Malaysia J Virol , 2012

RT, PR, and IN sequences from CRF54_01B viruses in Malaysia.
Ng KT, Ong LY, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK. Genome sequence of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form 54_01B from Malaysia J Virol, 2012

TDR in El Salvador, 2010.
Holguin A, Yebra G, Martin L, de Pineda AT, Ruiz LE, Quezada AY, Nieto AI, Escobar G. Transmitted drug-resistance in antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected population in El Salvador Clin Microbiol Infect. , 2013

Pre-therapy samples from ARV-naive patients in Rome, Italy.
Pariente N, Pernas M, de la Rosa R, Gomez-Mariano G, Fernandez G, Rubio A, Lopez M, Benito JM, Lopez-Galindez C, Leal M, Domingo E, Martinez MA, Mas A. Long-term suppression of plasma viremia with highly active antiretroviral therapy despite virus evolution and very limited selection of drug-resistant genotypes. J Med Virol , 2004

RT, PR, and IN sequences from recent seroconverters in the STEP vaccine trial.
Rolland M, Tovanabutra S, deCamp AC, Frahm N, Gilbert PB, Sanders-Buell E, Heath L, Magaret CA, Bose M, Bradfield A, O'Sullivan A, Crossler J, Jones T, Nau M, Wong K, Zhao H, Raugi DN, Sorensen S, Stoddard JN, Maust BS, Deng W, Hural J, Dubey S, Michael NL, Shiver J, Corey L, Li F, Self SG, Kim J, Buchbinder S, Casimiro DR, Robertson MN, Duerr A, McElrath MJ, McCutchan FE, Mullins JI. Genetic impact of vaccination on breakthrough HIV-1 sequences from the STEP trial Nat Med , 2011

TDR in Sicily in viruses sampled between 2004 and 2008.
Tramuto F, Maida CM, Bonura F, Perna AM, Vitale F. Dynamics and molecular evolution of HIV-1 strains in Sicily among antiretroviral naive patients. Infect Genet Evol , 2013

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in Russia, 2007.
Selimova LM, Kravtchenko, AV. HIV-1 pol gene subtypes isolated from drug-naive individuals in Russia. Unpublished, 2010

RT and PR sequences from newly diagnosed ARV-naive persons in Romania between 1997 and 2011.
Temereanca A, Ene L, Mehta S, Manolescu L, Duiculescu D, Ruta S. Transmitted HIV drug resistance in newly diagnosed, treatment-naive Romanian patients. J Med Virol , 2013

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in Beijing, China, 2007-2008.
Ye JR, Xin RL, Bai LS, Lu HY, Yu SQ, Zeng Y. Sequence analysis of the gag-pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 of intersubtype B/C recombinant strain in Beijing, China. ARHR , 2011

TDR in Romania, 2007-2010.
Florea D, Paraschiv S, Fratila M, Batan I, Doana A, Banica L, Otelea D. HIV transmitted drug resistance in Romania 2007-2010. Unpublished, 2011

RT and PR sequences from newly diagnosed ARV-naive patients at a clinic in Madrid Spain, 2000-2007.
Holguin A, de Mulder M, Yebra G, Lopez M, Soriano V. Increase of non-B subtypes and recombinants among newly diagnosed HIV-1 native Spaniards and immigrants in Spain. Curr HIV Res , 2008

RT and protease sequences from ARV-naive patients in U.S.
Wang YE, Li B, Carlson JM, Streeck H, Gladden AD, Goodman R, Schneidewind A, Power KA, Toth I, Frahm N, Alter G, Brander C, Carrington M, Walker BD, Altfeld M, Heckerman D, Allen TM. Protective HLA class I alleles that restrict acute-phase CD8+ T-cell responses are associated with viral escape mutations located in highly conserved regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol , 2009

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in Liaoning Province, China, 2000-2008.
Han X, Dai D, Zhao B, Liu J, Ding H, Zhang M, Hu Q, Lu C, Goldin M, Takebe Y, Zhang L, Shang H. Genetic and epidemiologic characterization of HIV-1 infection In Liaoning Province, China. JAIDS , 2010

RT and PR sequences from newly diagnosed ARV-naive persons from Equatorial Guinea living in Spain, 2005-2007.
Yebra G, Rivas P, Herrero MD, Lopez M, de Mulder M, Puente S, Ramirez-Olivencia G, Soriano V, Holguin A. Clinical differences and viral diversity between newly HIV type 1-diagnosed African and non-African patients in Spain (2005-2007). ARHR , 2009

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in Mozambique in 2003.
Parreira R, Piedade J, Domingues A, Lobao D, Santos M, Venenno T, Baptista JL, Mussa SA, Barreto AT, Baptista AJ, Esteves A. Genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from Beira, Mozambique. Microbes Infect , 2006

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive intravenous drug users in Switzerland
Yerly S, Jost S, Monnat M, Telenti A, Cavassini M, Chave JP, Kaiser L, Burgisser P, Perrin L. HIV-1 co/super-infection in intravenous drug users. AIDS , 2004

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in Southern Brazil between 2005 and 2008.
Santos AF, Silveira J, Muniz CP, Tornatore M, Goes LR, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Martinez AM, Tupinambas U, Greco DB, Soares MA. Primary HIV-1 drug resistance in the C-terminal domains of viral reverse transcriptase among drug-naive patients from Southern Brazil. J Clin Virol , 2011

RT, PR, and IN sequences from chronically infected ARV-naive persons in U.S., 2008.
Miura T, Brockman MA, Brumme CJ, Brumme ZL, Carlson JM, Pereyra F, Trocha A, Addo MM, Block BL, Rothchild AC, Baker BM, Flynn T, Schneidewind A, Li B, Wang YE, Heckerman D, Allen TM, Walker BD. Genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in elite controllers: Lack of gross genetic defects or common amino acid changes. J Virol , 2008

PR, RT, and IN sequences from newly diagnosed Caribbean patients.
Nadai Y, Eyzaguirre LM, Sill A, Cleghorn F, Nolte C, Charurat M, Collado-Chastel S, Jack N, Bartholomew C, Pape JW, Figueroa P, Blattner WA, Carr JK. HIV-1 epidemic in the Caribbean is dominated by subtype B. PLoS ONE , 2009

Complete RT, PR, and IN sequences from newly infected persons in RV144 vaccine trial, Thailand, 2005-2007.
Rolland M, Edlefsen PT, Larsen BB, Tovanabutra S, Sanders-Buell E, Hertz T, deCamp AC, Carrico C, Menis S, Magaret CA, Ahmed H, Juraska M, Chen L, Konopa P, Nariya S, Stoddard JN, Wong K, Zhao H, Deng W, Maust BS, Bose M, Howell S, Bates A, Lazzaro M, O'Sullivan A, Lei E, Bradfield A, Ibitamuno G, Assawadarachai V, O'Connell RJ, deSouza MS, Nitayaphan S, Rerks-Ngarm S, Robb ML, McLellan JS, Georgiev I, Kwong PD, Carlson JM, Michael NL, Schief WR, Gilbert PB, Mullins JI, Kim JH. Increased HIV-1 vaccine efficacy against viruses with genetic signatures in Env V2. Nature , 2012

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in Uganda, 2010.
Nazziwa J, Njai HF, Ndembi N, Birungi J, Lyagoba F, Gershim A, Nakiyingi-Miiro J, Nielsen L, Mpendo J, Nanvubya A, Debont J, Grosskurth H, Kamali A, Seeley J, Kaleebu P. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance and evidence of transmission clusters among recently infected antiretroviral naive individuals from Ugandan fishing communities of Lake Victoria. ARHR, 2012

RT, PR, and IN sequences from ARV-naive persons in Beijing, China, 2007-2010.
Li L, Han N, Lu J, Li T, Zhong X, Wu H, Rayner S, Chen L, Liu Y, Wang X, Li H, Li J. Genetic characterization and transmitted drug resistance of the HIV type 1 epidemic in men who have sex with men in Beijing, China. ARHR , 2013

RT and PR sequences from newly diagnosed persons in South Australia, 2000-2010.
Hawke KG, Waddell RG, Gordon DL, Ratcliff RM, Ward PR, Kaldor JM. HIV non-B subtype distribution: emerging trends and risk factors for imported and local infections newly diagnosed in South Australia. ARHR , 2013

RT, PR, and IN sequences from CRF01_AE viruses from ARV-naive persons in northeastern China between 2008 and 2010.
An M, Han X, Xu J, Chu Z, Jia M, Wu H, Lu L, Takebe Y, Shang H. Reconstituting the epidemic history of HIV strain CRF01_AE among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Liaoning, northeastern China: Implications for the expanding epidemic among MSM in China. J Virol , 2012

Phenotypic susceptibility of site-directed mutants to nevirapine and efavirenz.
Sato A, Hammond J, Alexander TN, Graham JP, Binford S, Sugita K, Sugimoto H, Fujiwara T, Patick AK. In vitro selection of mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase that confer resistance to capravirine, a novel nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Antiviral Res , 2006

RT and PR sequences from ARV-experienced patients in Argentina.
Jones LR, Moretti F, Calvo AY, Dilernia DA, Manrique JM, Gomez-Carrillo M, Salomon H. Drug resistance mutations in HIV pol sequences from Argentinean patients under antiretroviral treatment: subtype, gender, and age issues. ARHR, 2012

IN sequences from INI-naive and from raltegravir treated patients.
Parczewski M, Bander D, Urbanska A, Boron-Kaczmarska A. HIV-1 integrase resistance among antiretroviral treatment naive and experienced patients from Northwestern Poland. BMC Infect Dis , 2012

In vitro susceptibility of a virus with a T69 deletion.
Villena C, Prado JG, Puertas MC, Martinez MA, Clotet B, Ruiz L, Parkin NT, Menendez-Arias L, Martinez-Picado J. Relative fitness and replication capacity of a multinucleoside analogue-resistant clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate with a deletion of codon 69 in the reverse transcriptase coding region. J Virol , 2007

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive Vietnames children between 2004 and 2005.
Trinh QD, Pham NT, Le Nguyen NT, Lam BQ, Le Phan KT, Truong KH, Izumi Y, Komine-Aizawa S, Mizuguchi M, Ushijima H, Hayakawa S. Short communication: Drug resistance mutations in the HIV type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase genes in antiretroviral-naive Vietnamese children. ARHR, 2012

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in Peru between 2007 and 2009.
Soria J, Bull M, Mitchell C, La Rosa A, Dross S, Kraft K, Coombs R, Ticona E, Frenkel L. Transmitted HIV resistance to first-line antiretroviral therapy in Lima, Peru. ARHR , 2012

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in central west Brazil between 2008 and 2010.
da Silveira AA, Cardoso LP, Francisco RB, de Araujo Stefani MM. HIV type 1 molecular epidemiology in pol and gp41 genes among naive patients from Mato Grosso do Sul State, central western Brazil. ARHR , 2012

IN F121Y in a patient receiving raltegravir.
Souza Cavalcanti J, Minhoto Lanca A, de Paula Ferreira JL, da Eira M, de Souza Dantas DS, de Macedo Brigido LF. In-vivo selection of the mutation F121Y in a patient failing raltegravir containing salvage regimen. Antiviral Res , 2012

RT sequences from 530 ARV-naive persons in France 2006-2007.
Descamps D, Chaix ML, Montes B, Pakianather S, Charpentier C, Storto A, Barin F, Dos Santos G, Krivine A, Delaugerre C, Izopet J, Marcelin AG, Maillard A, Morand-Joubert L, Pallier C, Plantier JC, Tamalet C, Cottalorda J, Desbois D, Calvez V, Brun-Vezinet F, Masquelier B, Costagliola D. Increasing prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations and non-B subtype circulation in antiretroviral-naive chronically HIV-infected patients from 2001 to 2006/2007 in France. J Antimicrob Chemother , 2010

IN sequences from four raltegravir-treated patients.
Lee GQ, Swenson LC, Poon AF, Martin JN, Hatano H, Deeks SG, Harrigan PR. Prolonged and substantial discordance in prevalence of Raltegravir-resistant HIV-1 in plasma versus PBMC samples revealed by 454. PLoS ONE , 2012

RT and PR sequences from ARV-experienced patients in Morocco.
El Annaz H, Recordon-Pinson P, Tagajdid R, Doblali T, Belefquih B, Oumakhir S, Sedrati O, Mrani S, Fleury H. Drug resistance mutations in HIV type 1 isolates from patients failing antiretroviral therapy in Morocco. ARHR , 2012

TDR in southeast Brazil, 2008.
Gaspareto KV, Mello FM, Dias JR, Meneguetti VA, Storti ME, Ferreira JL, Lanca AM, Rodrigues R, Brigido LF, Teixeira JJ, Bertolini DA. Genetic diversity and primary resistance among HIV-1-positive patients from Maringa, Parana, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo , 2012

RT and PR sequences from 1,200 patients in North Carolina.
Dennis AM, Hue S, Hurt CB, Napravnik S, Sebastian J, Pillay D, Eron JJ. Phylogenetic insights into HIV transmission in North Carolina. AIDS , 2012

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in Chennai and Mumbai, India in 2007.
Hingankar NK, Thorat SR, Deshpande A, Rajasekaran S, Chandrasekar C, Kumar S, Srikantiah P, Chaturbhuj DN, Datkar SR, Deshmukh PS, Kulkarni SS, Sane S, Reddy DC, Garg R, Jordan MR, Kabra S, Tripathy SP, Paranjape RS. Initial virologic response and HIV drug resistance among HIV-infected individuals initiating first-line antiretroviral therapy at 2 clinics in Chennai and Mumbai, India. Clin Infect Dis , 2012

RT and PR sequences from 1,800 ARV-naive persons in Ottowa, Canada, 2002-2009.
Ragonnet-Cronin M, Aris-Brosou S, Joanisse I, Merks H, Vallee D, Caminiti K, Sandstrom P, Brooks J. Adaptive evolution of HIV at HLA epitopes is associated with ethnicity in Canada. PLoS ONE , 2012

RT and PR sequences from patients receiving D4T/3TC/NVP in Togo.
Dagnra AY, Vidal N, Mensah A, Patassi A, Aho K, Salou M, Monleau M, Prince-David M, Singo A, Pitche P, Delaporte E, Peeters M. High prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance among patients on first-line antiretroviral treatment in Lome, Togo. J Int AIDS Soc , 2011

RT connection domain sequences in patients receiving NRTIs.
von Wyl V, Ehteshami M, Demeter LM, Burgisser P, Nijhuis M, Symons J, Yerly S, Boni J, Klimkait T, Schuurman R, Ledergerber B, Gotte M, Gunthard HF. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase connection domain mutations: dynamics of emergence and implications for success of combination antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis , 2010

RT and protease sequences from ARV-experienced patients in Malawi.
Luebbert J, Tweya H, Phiri S, Chaweza T, Mwafilaso J, Hosseinipour MC, Ramroth H, Schnitzler P, Neuhann F. Virological failure and drug resistance in patients on antiretroviral therapy after treatment interruption in Lilongwe, Malawi. Clin Infect Dis , 2012

RT and PR sequences from children in Cameroon receiving first-line ARV therapy.
Fokam J, Salpini R, Santoro MM, Cento V, Perno CF, Colizzi V, Ndumbe PM, Fokunang Ntungen C, Ndiang Tetang SM, Nanfack AJ, Takou Komego DA, Cappelli G. Drug resistance among drug-naive and first-line antiretroviral treatment-failing children in Cameroon. Pediatr Infect Dis J , 2011

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in Cuba, 2009-2010.
Machado LY, Blanco M, Dubed M, Diaz HM, Ruiz NM, Valdes N, Romay D, Lobaina LI. HIV type 1 genetic diversity in newly diagnosed Cuban patients. ARHR, 2012

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in the Philippines. 2008-2012
Telan EF,Kageyama S. Characterization of HIV circulating among risk populations in the early epidemic phase in the Philippines. Direct Submission, 2012

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in the Philippines,2008-2010.
Telan EF, Samonte GM, Abellanosa-Tac-An IP, Alesna ET, Leano PS, Emphasis YE, Tsuneki A, Matsumoto K, Kageyama S. The early phase of an HIV epidemic in a population exposed previously to HCV in the Philippines. J Med Virol , 2011

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons in Cuba, 2009-2010
Machado LY, Dubed M, Diaz H, Ruiz N, Romay D, Valdes N, Blanco M, Silva E. Transmitted HIV type 1 drug resistance in newly diagnosed Cuban patients. ARHR , 2012

RT and PR sequences from ARV-naive persons with recent seroconversion in Uganda between 2004 and 2010.
Ssemwanga D, Kapaata A, Lyagoba F, Magambo B, Nanyonjo M, Mayanja BN, Parry CM, Kaleebu P. Low drug resistance levels among drug-naive individuals with recent HIV-1 infection in a rural clinical cohort in southwestern Uganda. ARHR , 2012

July 2, 2012
Primary HIV-1 Infection in Multicenter French Cohort
Frange P, Meyer L, Deveau C, Tran L, Goujard C, Ghosn J, Girard PM, Morlat P, Rouzioux C, Chaix ML (French ANRS). Recent HIV-1 infection contributes to the viral diffusion over the French territory with a recent increasing frequency. PLoS ONE, 2012

Genotypic and Phenotypic Resistance in Persons Receiving Raltegravir
Garrido C, Villacian J, Zahonero N, Pattery T, Garcia F, Gutierrez F, Caballero E, Van Houtte M, Soriano V, de Mendoza C (SINRES Group). Broad phenotypic cross-resistance to elvitegravir in HIV-infected patients failing on raltegravir-containing regimens. AAC, 2012

In vitro resistance profile of elvitegravir
Abram ME, Hluhanich RM, Goodman DD, Andreatta KN, Margot NA, Ye L, Cavanaugh J, Niedziela-Majka A, Barnes T, Novikov N, Chen X, Svarovskaia ES, McColl DJ, White KL, Miller MD. Effect of primary elvitegravir resistance mutations in HIV-1 integrase on drug susceptibility and viral replication fitness. IWHHVDR, 2012

In vitro resistance profile of BMS-986001 (aka festinavir)
Li Z, Terry B, Olds W, Protack T, Deminie C, Minassian B, Nowicka-Sans B, Dicker I, Hwang C, Lataillade M, Hanna GJ, Krystal M. The in vitro cross-resistance profile of the NRTI BMS-986001 against known NRTI resistance mutations. IWHHVDR, 2012

Y188L and RPV resistance
Haddad M, Napolitano LA, Paquet A, Evans M, Petropoulos C, Whitcomb J, Huang W. Mutation Y188L of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is strongly associated with reduced susceptibility to rilpivirine. CROI, 2012

Transmitted Drug Resistance in Kenya
Sigaloff KC, Mandaliya K, Hamers RL, Otieno F, Jao IM, Lyagoba F, Magambo B, Kapaata A, Ndembi N, Rinke de Wit TF. High Prevalence of Transmitted Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Among Newly HIV Type 1 Diagnosed Adults in Mombasa, Kenya. ARHR, 2012

Genotypic Resistance ARV-Naive Persons From South Africa
Musyoki A, Mothapo K, Rakgole J, Lukhwareni A, Bessong P, Selabe G, Bredell H, Williamson C, Mphahlele MJ. Genetic Characterization of HIV Before Widespread Testing of HIV Vaccine Candidates at a Clinical Trial Site in Pretoria, South Africa. ARHR, 2012

In vitro resistance profile of elvitegravir
Margot NA, Hluhanich RM, Jones GS, Andreatta KN, Tsiang M, McColl DJ, White KL, Miller MD. In vitro resistance selections using elvitegravir, raltegravir, and two metabolites of elvitegravir M1 and M4. Antiviral Res, 2012

Genotypic Resistance in ARV-Naive Persons in Northern India
Sinha S, Ahmad H, Shekhar RC, Kumar N, Dar L, Samantaray JC, Sharma SK, Bhargava A, Pandey RM, Mitsuyasu RL, Fahey JL. Prevalence of HIV Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV Type 1 Isolates in Antiretroviral Therapy Naive Population from Northern India. AIDS Res Treatm, 2012

Genotypic Resistance in ARV-Naive Person in Northern Vietnam
Tran VT, Ishizaki A, Nguyen CH, Hoang HT, Pham HV, Bi X, Pham TV, Ichimura H. No Increase of Drug-Resistant HIV Type 1 Prevalence Among Drug-Naive Individuals in Northern Vietnam. ARHR, 2012

RTI-Resistance In Newly Diagnosed Persons in Guangdong Province
Yang C, Liu S, Zhang T, Hou Y, Liu X, Gao Y, Yang G, Wang Z, Chen H, Li M, Zhu Z. Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance and thumb subdomain polymorphisms among newly HIV-1 diagnosed patients infected with CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC virus in Guangdong Province, China. ARHR, 2012

Effect of NRTI-Resistance Mutations on NRTI Susceptibility
Melikian GL, Rhee SY, Taylor J, Fessel WJ, Kaufman D, Towner W, Troia-Cancio PV, Zolopa A, Robbins GK, Kagan R, Israelski D, Shafer RW. Standardized comparison of the relative impacts of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations on nucleoside RT inhibitor susceptibility. AAC, 2012

Genotypic Resistance in ARV-Naive Persons in Ireland
De Gascun CF, Waters A, Regan CM, O'Halloran J, Farrell G, Coughlan S, Bergin C, Powderly WG, Hall WW. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Ireland: Phylogenetic Evidence for Risk Group-Specific Subepidemics. ARHR, 2012

Genotypic Resistance Following First-Line Therapy in Thailand
Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Jourdain G, Amzal B, Sang-a-gad P, Lertkoonalak R, Eiamsirikit N, Tansuphasawasdikul S, Buranawanitchakorn Y, Yutthakasemsunt N, Mekviwattanawong S, McIntosh K, Lallemant M. Resistance patterns selected by nevirapine vs. efavirenz in HIV-infected patients failing first-line antiretroviral treatment: a bayesian analysis. PLoS ONE, 2011

Genotypic resistance in Persons Receiving d4T/3TC/EFV (GS903)
Margot NA, Lu B, Cheng A, Miller MD (Study 903 Team). Resistance development over 144 weeks in treatment-naive patients receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or stavudine with lamivudine and efavirenz in Study 903. HIV Med, 2006

HIV-1 RT/PR and HLA Types in Persons with CRF01/AE Infection in Vietnam
Lazaro E, Tram LT, Bellecave P, Guidicelli GL, Anies G, Thu HH, Debelleix MP, Vray M, Recordon-Pinson P, Taupin JL, Lien TT, Fleury H. Molecular characterization of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Mekong Delta, Vietnam, and impact of T-cell epitope mutations on HLA recognition (ANRS 12159). PLoS ONE, 2011

Multicenter Study of Genotypic Resistance in ARV-Naive Persons in Vietnam
Dean J, Ta Thi TH, Dunford L, Carr MJ, Nguyen LT, Coughlan S, Connell J, Nguyen HT, Hall WW, Nguyen Thi LA. Prevalence of HIV type 1 antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in Vietnam: a multicenter study. ARHR, 2011

Genotypic Resistance in ARV-Naive Persons in Sweden
Karlsson A, Bjorkman P, Bratt G, Ekvall H, Gisslen M, Sonnerborg A, Mild M, Albert J. Low prevalence of transmitted drug resistance in patients newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection in Sweden 2003-2010. PLoS ONE, 2012

Isolates from Recently Infected Persons in Sao Paulo
Sanabani SS, Pastena ER, da Costa AC, Martinez VP, Kleine-Neto W, de Oliveira AC, Sauer MM, Bassichetto KC, Oliveira SM, Tomiyama HT, Sabino EC, Kallas EG. Characterization of partial and near full-length genomes of HIV-1 strains sampled from recently infected individuals in Sao Paulo, Brazil. PLoS ONE, 2011

HIV-1 Genetic Diversity in Cameroon
Aghokeng AF, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Chia JE, Edoul EM, Delaporte E, Peeters M. High failure rate of the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system for drug resistance testing in Cameroon, a country with broad HIV-1 genetic diversity. J Clin Microbiol, 2011

Genotypic Resistance Following First-Line ART in Children in Mali
Germanaud D, Derache A, Traore M, Madec Y, Toure S, Dicko F, Coulibaly H, Traore M, Sylla M, Calvez V, Marcelin AG. Level of viral load and antiretroviral resistance after 6 months of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor first-line treatment in HIV-1-infected children in Mali. AAC, 2010

Genotypic Resistance in the Combine Study
Podzamczer D, Ferrer E, Consiglio E, Gatell JM, Perez P, Perez JL, Luna E, Gonzalez A, Pedrol E, Lozano L, Ocana I, Llibre JM, Casiro A, Aranda M, Barrufet P, Martinez-Lacasa J, Miro JM, Badia X, Casado A, Lupo S, Cahn P, Manos M, Estela J. A randomized clinical trial comparing nelfinavir or nevirapine associated to zidovudine/lamivudine in HIV-infected naive patients (the Combine Study). Antivir Ther, 2002

Genotypic Resistance in ARV-Experienced Children in CAR
Charpentier C, Gody JC, Mbitikon O, Moussa S, Matta M, Pere H, Fournier J, Longo Jde D, Belec L. Virological response and resistance profiles after 18 to 30 months of first- or second-/third-line antiretroviral treatment: a cross-sectional evaluation in HIV type 1-infected children living in the Central African Republic. ARHR, 2011

Genotypic Resistance Following First-Line Therapy in Cambodia
Ferradini L, Ouk V, Segeral O, Nouhin J, Dulioust A, Hak C, Fournier I, Lerolle N, Ngin S, Mean CV, Delfraissy JF, Nerrienet E. High efficacy of lopinavir/r-based second-line antiretroviral treatment after 24 months of follow up at ESTHER/Calmette Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. J Int AIDS Soc, 2011

Panel of Multi-NNRTI-Resistant Recombinant Infectious Molecular Clones
Balamane M, Varghese V, Melikian GL, Fessel WJ, Katzenstein DA, Shafer RW. Panel of prototypical recombinant infectious molecular clones resistant to nevirapine, efavirenz, etravirine, and rilpivirine. AAC, 2012

HIV-1 Isolates from Uruguay
Vinoles J, Serra M, Russi JC, Ruchansky D, Sosa-Estani S, Montano SM, Carrion G, Eyzaguirre LM, Carr JK, Olson JG, Bautista CT, Sanchez JL, Weissenbacher M. Seroincidence and phylogeny of human immunodeficiency virus infections in a cohort of commercial sex workers in Montevideo, Uruguay. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2005

April 18, 2012
Multicenter Study of HIV-1 Drug Resistance Following First-Line Therapy
Sigaloff KC, Ramatsebe T, Viana R, de Wit TF, Wallis CL, Stevens WS. Accumulation of HIV drug resistance mutations in patients failing first-line antiretroviral treatment in South Africa. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

TDR in ARV-Naive Persons in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Hamers RL, Wallis CL, Kityo C, Siwale M, Mandaliya K, Conradie F, Botes ME, Wellington M, Osibogun A, Sigaloff KC, Nankya I, Schuurman R, Wit FW, Stevens WS, van Vugt M, de Wit TF; PharmAccess African Studies to Evaluate Resistance (PASER). HIV-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa after rollout of antiretroviral therapy: a multicentre observational study. Lancet, 2011

PI-Resistance Mutations In Persons with LPV-Associated Virological Failure.
Barber TJ, Harrison L, Asboe D, Williams I, Kirk S, Gilson R, Bansi L, Pillay D, Dunn D; on behalf of the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database and the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) Study Steering Committees. Frequency and patterns of protease gene resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir as their first protease inhibitor. J Antimicrob Chemother, 2012

Molecular Phylogeny of HIV-1 RT Sequences in Mumbai, India, 2002 to 2008.
Deshpande A, Jauvin V, Pinson P, Jeannot AC, Fleury HJ. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase sequences from 382 patients recruited in JJ Hospital of Mumbai, India, between 2002 and 2008. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2009

Ongoing TDR in California, U.S.
Truong HM, Kellogg TA, McFarland W, Louie B, Klausner JD, Philip SS, Grant RM.Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection. PLoS ONE, 2011

E138K + M184I Induced Rilpivirine Resistance.
Kulkarni R, Babaoglu K, Lansdon EB, Rimsky L, Van Eygen V, Picchio G, Svarovskaia E, Miller MD, White KL.IThe HIV-1 reverse transcriptase M184I mutation enhances the E138K-associated resistance to rilpivirine and decreases viral fitness. JAIDS, 2012

HIV-1 Drug Resistance following First-Line Therapy in South Africa.
Hoffmann CJ, Charalambous S, Sim J, Ledwaba J, Schwikkard G, Chaisson RE, Fielding KL, Churchyard GJ, Morris L, Grant AD.Viremia, resuppression, and time to resistance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subtype C during first-line antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis, 2009

HIV-1 Drug Resistance following First-Line Therapy in CAR.
Moussa S, Pinson P, Pelembi P, Gody JC, Mbitikon O, Fikouma V, Mbay P, Fleury HJ.First data on HIV-1 resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs in Central African Republic. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2010

HIV-1 Drug Resistance following First-Line Therapy in the Western Cape, South Africa.
van Zyl GU, van der Merwe L, Claassen M, Zeier M, Preiser W.Antiretroviral resistance patterns and factors associated with resistance in adult patients failing NNRTI-based regimens in the Western Cape, South Africa. J Med Virol, 2011

Connection and RNaseH RT Mutations following 2 NRTIs + Efavirenz.
Brehm JH, Lalama CM, Hughes MD, Haubrich R, Riddler SA, Sluis-Cremer N, Mellors JW; AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5142 Protocol Team.Failure of initial therapy with two nucleosides and efavirenz is not associated with early emergence of mutations in the C-terminus of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. JAIDS, 2011

Baseline and Follow-up Sequences From Patients in A5142.
Riddler SA, Haubrich R, DiRienzo AG, Peeples L, Powderly WG, Klingman KL, Garren KW, George T, Rooney JF, Brizz B, Lalloo UG, Murphy RL, Swindells S, Havlir D, Mellors JW; AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5142 Team.Class-sparing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med, 2008

HIV-1 Drug Resistance in ARV-Naive Persons in Tanzania.
Kasang C, Kalluvya S, Majinge C, Stich A, Bodem J, Kongola G, Jacobs GB, Mlewa M, Mildner M, Hensel I, Horn A, Preiser W, van Zyl G, Klinker H, Koutsilieri E, Rethwilm A, Scheller C, Weissbrich B.HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) in antiretroviral therapy-naive patients in Tanzania not eligible for WHO threshold HIVDR survey is dramatically high. PLoS ONE, 2010

Subtype C PR from ARV-Naive Persons in South Africa.
Wright JK, Novitsky V, Brockman MA, Brumme ZL, Brumme CJ, Carlson JM, Heckerman D, Wang B, Losina E, Leshwedi M, van der Stok M, Maphumulo L, Mkhwanazi N, Chonco F, Goulder PJ, Essex M, Walker BD, Ndung'u T.Influence of Gag-protease-mediated replication capacity on disease progression in individuals recently infected with HIV-1 subtype C. J Virol, 2011

TDR in CRF01_AE viruses From Persons in North Vietnam.
Bontell I, Cuong do D, Agneskog E, Diwan V, Larsson M, Sonnerborg A.Transmitted drug resistance and phylogenetic analysis of HIV CRF01_AE in Northern Vietnam. Infect Genet Evol, 2011

HIV-1 Drug Resistance following First-Line Therapy in South Africa.
El-Khatib Z, Ekstrom AM, Ledwaba J, Mohapi L, Laher F, Karstaedt A, Charalambous S, Petzold M, Katzenstein D, Morris L.Viremia and drug resistance among HIV-1 patients on antiretroviral treatment: a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2010

HIV-1 Drug Resistance in ARV-Naive Persons in Brazil.
de Medeiros RM, Junqueira DM, Matte MC, Barcellos NT, Chies JA, Matos Almeida SE.Co-circulation HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and CRF31_BC in a drug-naive population from Southernmost Brazil: analysis of primary resistance mutations. J Med Virol, 2011

RT and PR isolates from ARV-Naive Persons in Hungary.
Mezei M, Ay E, Koroknai A, Toth R, Balazs A, Bakos A, Gyori Z, Banati F, Marschalko M, Karpati S, Minarovits J.Molecular epidemiological analysis of env and pol sequences in newly diagnosed HIV type 1-infected, untreated patients in Hungary. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

TDR in Pregnant Women in India.
Thorat SR, Chaturbhuj DN, Hingankar NK, Chandrasekhar V, Koppada R, Datkar SR, Srikantiah P, Garg R, Kabra S, Haldar P, Reddy DC, Bachani D, Tripathy SP, Paranjape RS.Surveillance of transmitted HIV type 1 drug resistance among HIV type 1-positive women attending an antenatal clinic in Kakinada, India., 2011


Unusual RT Codon 69 Deletion in Subtype C Virus.
Wallis CL, Venter WD, Stevens WS, Papathanasopoulos MA.Case report of the rare deletion at codon 69 of reverse transcriptase in a South African HIV-1 subtype C infected patient. Virus Genes, 2010

Novel CRF in Nepal.
Shahid A, Dixit SM, Gurbacharya VL, Karmacharya D, Ali S.HIV-1 circulating recombinant form in Nepal. J Virol, 2011

TDR in Newly Diagnosed Pregnant Women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Parboosing R, Naidoo A, Gordon M, Taylor M, Vella V.Resistance to antiretroviral drugs in newly diagnosed, young treatment-naive HIV-positive pregnant women in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Med Virol, 2011

HIV-1 Molecular Epidemiology in Indonesia.
Sahbandar IN, Takahashi K, Djoerban Z, Firmansyah I, Naganawa S, Motomura K, Sato H, Kitamura K, Pohan HT, Sato S.Current HIV type 1 molecular epidemiology profile and identification of unique recombinant forms in Jakarta, Indonesia. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2009

Molecular Epidmiology of HIV-1 in Taiwan 2007 to 2009.
Kao CF, Chang SY, Hsia KT, Chang FY, Yang CH, Liu HR, Fu TY, Yang JY.Surveillance of HIV type 1 recent infection and molecular epidemiology among different risk behaviors between 2007 and 2009 after the HIV type 1 CRF07_BC outbreak in Taiwan. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

HIV-1 Drug Resistance in ARV-Naive Persons in Mumbai, India.
Deshpande A, Karki S, Recordon-Pinson P, Fleury HJ.Drug resistance mutations in HIV type 1 isolates from naive patients eligible for first line antiretroviral therapy in JJ Hospital, Mumbai, India. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

HIV-1 Drug Resistance in ARV-Naive Persons in Southern Brazil.
Graf T, Passaes CP, Ferreira LG, Grisard EC, Morgado MG, Bello G, Pinto AR.HIV-1 genetic diversity and drug resistance among treatment naive patients from Southern Brazil: an association of HIV-1 subtypes with exposure categories. J Clin Virol, 2011

TDR in Pregnant Women in Zimbabwe.
Tshabalala M, Manasa J, Zijenah LS, Rusakaniko S, Kadzirange G, Mucheche M, Kassaye S, Johnston E, Katzenstein D.Surveillance of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-1 infected women attending antenatal clinics in Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe. PLoS ONE, 2011

CRf51_01B in Singapore.
Ng OT, Eyzaguirre LM, Carr JK, Chew KK, Lin L, Chua A, Leo YS, Redd AD, Quinn TC, Laeyendecker O.Identification of New CRF51_01B in Singapore Using Full Genome Analysis of Three HIV Type 1 Isolates. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

Subtype B in Western Hubei, China.
Li Y, Takebe Y, Yang J, Zhang W, Yang R.High prevalence of HIV type 1 subtype B among heterosexuals in Western Hubei, Central China: bridging the epidemic into the general population. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

Drug Resistance Prevalence in U.S. Blood Donors 2005 to 2007.
Brennan CA, Yamaguchi J, Devare SG, Foster GA, Stramer SL.Drug resistance pattern of HIV type 1 isolates sampled in 2007 from therapy-naive pregnant women in North-Central Nigeria. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

HIV-1 Molecular Epidemiology in Australia.
Chibo D, Kaye M, Birch C.HIV Transmissions During Seroconversion Contribute Significantly to New Infections in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Australia. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations in ARV-Naive Patients from Southern China.
Su Q, Liang H, Cen P, Bi Z, Zhou P. HIV Type 1 Subtypes Based on the pol Gene and Drug Resistance Mutations Among Antiretroviral-Naive Patients from Guangxi, Southern China. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

Sequence Variation in an MSM Cohort in China.
Wang W, Jiang S, Li S, Yang K, Ma L, Zhang F, Zhang X, Shao Y.Identification of subtype B, multiple circulating recombinant forms and unique recombinants of HIV type 1 in an MSM cohort in China. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2008

Etravirine Resistance in Clinical Samples.
Kagan RM, Sista P, Pattery T, Bacheler L, Schwab DA.Additional HIV-1 mutation patterns associated with reduced phenotypic susceptibility to etravirine in clinical samples. AIDS, 2009

TDR and HIV-1 Genetic Diversity in Central Western Brazil.
Ferreira AS, Cardoso LP, Stefani MM.Moderate prevalence of transmitted drug resistance and high HIV-1 genetic diversity in patients from Mato Grosso State, Central Western Brazil. J Med Virol, 2011

HIV-1 PR, RT, and IN Sequences from South Africa.
Matthews PC, Prendergast A, Leslie A, Crawford H, Payne R, Rousseau C, Rolland M, Honeyborne I, Carlson J, Kadie C, Brander C, Bishop K, Mlotshwa N, Mullins JI, Coovadia H, Ndung'u T, Walker BD, Heckerman D, Goulder PJ.Central role of reverting mutations in HLA associations with human immunodeficiency virus set point. J Virol, 2008

HIV-1 Drug Resistance in ARV-Naive Persons in South Africa
Manasa J, Katzenstein D, Cassol S, Newell ML, de Oliveira For The Southern Africa Treatment And Resistance Network Saturn T.Primary Drug Resistance in South Africa: Data from 10 Years of Surveys. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

NNRTI-Resistance Mutations in CRF01_AE Viruses from India.
Bunupuradah T, Ananworanich J, Chetchotisakd P, Kantipong P, Jirajariyavej S, Sirivichayakul S, Munsakul W, Prasithsirikul W, Sungkanuparph S, Bowonwattanuwong C, Klinbuayaem V, Petoumenos K, Hirschel B, Bhakeecheep S, Ruxrungtham K.Etravirine and rilpivirine resistance in HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE-infected adults failing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens. Antivir Ther, 2011

Phenotypic Studies of Site-Directed NNRTI-Resistance Mutations.
Tambuyzer L, Azijn H, Rimsky LT, Vingerhoets J, Lecocq P, Kraus G, Picchio G, de Bethune MP.Compilation and prevalence of mutations associated with resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Antivir Ther, 2009

RT Codon 70 Deletion Mutation.
Hu Z, Hatano H, Hammond SP, Smith D, Wild M, Gupta S, Whitcomb J, Kalayjian RC, Gripshover B, Kuritzkes DRVirologic characterization of HIV type 1 with a codon 70 deletion in reverse transcriptase. JAIDS, 2007

TDR Assessments in Botswana.
Bussmann H, de la Hoz Gomez F, Roels TH, Wester CW, Bodika SM, Moyo S, Taffa N, Anderson MG, Mine M, Bile EC, Yang C, Mphoyakgosi K, Lehotzky EA, Mlotshwa B, Mmelesi M, Seipone K, Makhema MJ, Marlink RG, Novitsky V, Essex M.Prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Botswana: lessons learned from the HIVDR-Threshold Survey conducted among women presenting for routine antenatal care as part of the 2007 national sentinel survey. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2010

TDR in Malawi.
Kamoto K, Aberle-Grasse J; Malawi HIV Drug Resistance Task Force.Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance with the World Health Organization threshold survey method in Lilongwe, Malawi. Antivir Ther, 2008

Connection Domain Mutations in ARV-Experienced Persons.
Dau B, Ayers D, Singer J, Harrigan PR, Brown S, Kyriakides T, Cameron DW, Angus B, Holodniy M.Connection domain mutations in treatment-experienced patients in the OPTIMA trial. JAIDS, 2010

HIV-1 Drug Resistance in Subtype C-Infected Children Following First-Line Therapy.
Green TN, Archary M, Gordon ML, Padayachi N, Lie Y, Anton ED, Reeves JD, Grobler A, Bobat R, Coovadia H, Ndung'u T.Drug Resistance and Coreceptor Usage in HIV Type 1 Subtype C-Infected Children Initiating or Failing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

TDR in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Aghokeng AF, Kouanfack C, Laurent C, Ebong E, Atem-Tambe A, Butel C, Montavon C, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Delaporte E, Peeters M. Scale-up of antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa is accompanied by increasing HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in drug-naive patients. AIDS, 2011

HIV-1 Prevalence in U.S. Blood Donors.
Delwart E, Slikas E, Stramer SL, Kamel H, Kessler D, Krysztof D, Tobler LH, Carrick DM, Steele W, Todd D, Wright DJ, Kleinman SH, Busch MP; NHLBI-REDS-II Study Group.Genetic diversity of recently acquired and prevalent HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in US blood donors. J Infect Dis, 2012

HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations in ARV-Naive Persons in Beijing, China.
Ye JR, Lu HY, Wang WS, Guo L, Xin RL, Yu SQ, Wu TC, Zeng Y, He X. The Prevalence of Drug Resistance Mutations Among Treatment-Naive HIV-Infected Individuals in Beijing, China. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

HIV-1 Diversity and Drug Resistance in Blood Donors in China.
Zeng P, Wang J, Huang Y, Guo X, Li J, Wen G, Yang T, Yun Z, He M, Liu Y, Yuan Y, Schulmann J, Glynn S, Ness P, Jackson JB, Shan H; NHLBI Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II), International Component. The human immunodeficiency virus-1 genotype diversity and drug resistance mutations profile of volunteer blood donors from Chinese blood centers. Transfusion, 2011

Full-Length Subtype A Genome Sequences From Russia.
Fernandez-Garcia A, Revilla A, Vazquez-de Parga E, Vinogradova A, Rakhmanova A, Karamov E, Carrera C, Delgado E, Perez-Alvarez L, Najera R, Osmanov S, Thomson MM.The Analysis of Near Full-Length Genome Sequences of HIV Type 1 Subtype A Viruses from Russia Supports the Monophyly of Major Intrasubtype Clusters. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2012

HIV-1 Sequences From ARV-Naive Persons in Cameroon.
Youngpairoj AS, Alemnji GA, Eno LT, Lyonga EJ, Eloundou MA, Shanmugam V, Mpoudi EN, Folks TM, Kalish ML, Pieniazek D, Fonjungo PN.Prevalence of Drug Resistance-Related Polymorphisms in Treatment-Naive Individuals Infected with Nonsubtype B HIV Type 1 in Cameroon. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

NNRTI-Resistance Mutations in CRF01_AE Viruses from India.
Bunupuradah T, Ananworanich J, Chetchotisakd P, Kantipong P, Jirajariyavej S, Sirivichayakul S, Munsakul W, Prasithsirikul W, Sungkanuparph S, Bowonwattanuwong C, Klinbuayaem V, Petoumenos K, Hirschel B, Bhakeecheep S, Ruxrungtham K. Etravirine and rilpivirine resistance in HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE-infected adults failing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens. Antivir Ther , 2011

HIV-1 Drug Resistance in ARV-Naive Persons in South Africa
Nwobegahay JM, Bessong PO, Masebe TM, Mavhandu LG, Iweriebor BC, Selabe G. Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations and HIV-I subtypes among newly-diagnosed drug-naive persons visiting a voluntary testing and counselling centre in northeastern South Africa. J Health Popul Nutr,2011 Aug;29(4):303-9.

July 15, 2011
Transmitted drug resistance among newly HIV-1 diagnosed young individuals in Kampala.
Ndembi N, Hamers RL, Sigaloff KC, Lyagoba F, Magambo B, Nanteza B, Watera C, Kaleebu P, Rinke de Wit TF. Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance among newly HIV-1 diagnosed young individuals in Kampala. AIDS, 2011

Drug resistance mutations among drug-naive patients in Morocco.
Annaz HE, Recordon-Pinson P, Baba N, Sedrati O, Mrani S, Fleury H. Presence of drug resistance mutations among drug-naive patients in Morocco. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

Early virological failure with the once-daily tenofovir/lamivudine/nevirapine.
Rey D, Hoen B, Chavanet P, Schmitt MP, Hoizey G, Meyer P, Peytavin G, Spire B, Allavena C, Diemer M, May T, Schmit JL, Duong M, Calvez V, Lang JM. High rate of early virological failure with the once-daily tenofovir/lamivudine/nevirapine combination in naive HIV-1-infected patients. J Antimicrob Chemother, 2009

Triple-nucleoside regimens versus efavirenz-containing regimens for the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection¬ (ACTG A5095).
Gulick RM, Ribaudo HJ, Shikuma CM, Lustgarten S, Squires KE, Meyer WA 3rd, Acosta EP, Schackman BR, Pilcher CD, Murphy RL, Maher WE, Witt MD, Reichman RC, Snyder S, Klingman KL, Kuritzkes DR; AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5095 Team. Triple-nucleoside regimens versus efavirenz-containing regimens for the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med, 2004

Drug resistance among HIV-1-untreated patients in Guinea-Conakry and in Niger.
Charpentier C, Bellecave P, Cisse M, Mamadou S, Diakite M, Peytavin G, Tchiombiano S, Teisseire P, Pizarro L, Storto A, Brun-Vezinet F, Katlama C, Calvez V, Marcelin AG, Masquelier B, Descamps D. High prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-1-untreated patients in Guinea-Conakry and in Niger. Antivir Ther, 2011

Island Biogeography Reveals the Deep History of SIV.
Worobey M, Telfer P, Souquiere S, Hunter M, Coleman CA, Metzger MJ, Reed P, Makuwa M, Hearn G, Honarvar S, Roques P, Apetrei C, Kazanji M, Marx PA. Island Biogeography Reveals the Deep History of SIV Science, 2010


Identification of new CRF43_02G and CRF25_cpx in Saudi Arabia.
Yamaguchi J, Badreddine S, Swanson P, Bodelle P, Devare SG, Brennan CA. Identification of new CRF43_02G and CRF25_cpx in Saudi Arabia based on full genome sequence analysis of six HIV type 1 isolates. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2008

Identification of CRF44_BF in Chile.
Delgado E, Rios M, Fernandez J, Perez-Alvarez L, Najera R, Thomson MM. Identification of a new HIV type 1 BF intersubtype circulating recombinant form (CRF44_BF) in Chile. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus , 2010

Angolan and Romanian HIV-1 subtype F1 isolates.
Guimaraes ML, Vicente AC, Otsuki K, da Silva RF, Francisco M, da Silva FG, Serrano D, Morgado MG, Bello G. Close phylogenetic relationship between Angolan and Romanian HIV-1 subtype F1 isolates. Retrovirology, 2009

Near full-length HIV sequences from Cyprus.
Kousiappa I, Van De Vijver DA, Kostrikis LG. Near full-length genetic analysis of HIV sequences derived from Cyprus: evidence of a highly polyphyletic and evolving infection. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2009

Identification of a CRF48_01B in Malaysia.
Li Y, Tee KK, Liao H, Hase S, Uenishi R, Li XJ, Tsuchiura T, Yang R, Govindasamy S, Yong YK, Tan HY, Pybus OG, Kamarulzaman A, Takebe Y. Identification of a novel second-generation circulating recombinant form (CRF48_01B) in Malaysia: a descendant of the previously identified CRF33_01B. JAIDS, 2010

Replication-competent molecular clone of HIV-1 CRF33_01B.
Tee KK, Kusagawa S, Li XJ, Onogi N, Isogai M, Hase S, Uenishi R, Liao H, Kamarulzaman A, Takebe Y. Isolation and characterization of a replication-competent molecular clone of an HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF33_01B). PLoS One, 2009

Confirmation of putative HIV-1 group P in Cameroon.
Vallari A, Holzmayer V, Harris B, Yamaguchi J, Ngansop C, Makamche F, Mbanya D, Kaptu√©, Ndembi N, G√ľ L, Devare S, Brennan CA. Confirmation of putative HIV-1 group P in Cameroon. J Virol, 2011

Significant presence of CRF49_cpx in Gambia.
de Silva TI, Turner R, Hué, Trikha R, van Tienen C, Onyango C, Jaye A, Foley B, Whittle H, Rowland- Jones SL, Cotten M. HIV-1 subtype distribution in the Gambia and the significant presence of CRF49_cpx, a novel circulating recombinant form. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

HIV type 1 in Singapore and identification of novel CRF01_AE/B.
Ng OT, Munshaw S, Lamers SL, Chew KK, Lin L, Redd AD, Manucci J, Quinn TC, Ray SC, Chua A, Leo YS, Laeyendecker O. Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 in Singapore and identification of novel CRF01_AE/B recombinant forms. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus , 2011

Prevalence of transmitted drug resistance in Tocantins, Brazil.
Carvalho BC, Cardoso LP, Damasceno S, de Araujo Stefani MM. Moderate prevalence of transmitted drug resistance and interiorization of HIV type 1 subtype C in the inland north state of Tocantins, Brazil. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2011

HIV-1 primary drug resistance prevalence in Cotonou, Benin.
Chamberland,A, Diabate,S, Sylla,M, Anagounou,SY, Geraldo,N, Zannou,DM, Labbe,AC, Worobey,M, Alary,M. HIV-1 primary drug resistance prevalence in Cotonou, Benin. Direct Genbank Submission, 2011

Transmitted drug resistance in therapy naive HIV-1 infected patients in Mwanza, Tanzania.
Kasang,C, Weissbrich,B, Scheller,C. High prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations in therapy naive HIV-1 infected patients in Mwanza, Lake Victoria zone, Tanzania. Direct Genbank Submission, 2010

Replication capacity on disease progression in recentsubtype C infections.
Wright JK, Novitsky V, Brockman MA, Brumme ZL, Brumme CJ, Carlson JM, Heckerman D, Wang B, Losina E, Leshwedi M, van der Stok M, Maphumulo L, Mkhwanazi N, Chonco F, Goulder PJ, Essex M, Walker BD, Ndung'u T. Influence of Gag-protease-mediated replication capacity on disease progression in individuals recently infected with HIV-1 subtype C. J Virol, 2011

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infecting a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) is closely related to SIVrcm.
Ahuka-Mundeke S, Liegeois F, Ayouba A, Foupouapouognini Y, Nerrienet E, Delaporte E, Peeters M. Full-length genome sequence of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infecting a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) is closely related to SIVrcm infecting wild red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Cameroon J Gen Virol, 2010

New simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes.
Etienne L, Nerrienet E, LeBreton M, Bibila GT, Foupouapouognigni Y, Rousset D, Nana A, Djoko CF, Tamoufe U, Aghokeng AF, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Delaporte E, Peeters M, Wolfe ND, Ayouba A. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms Retrovirology, 2011

Origin and epidemiological history of CRF14_BG.¬
Bartolo I, Borrego P, Abecasis AB, McCutchan F, Taveira N. Origin and epidemiological history of CRF14_BG Direct Genbank Submission, 2010

HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in Cuba.
Perez L, Thomson MM, Bleda MJ, Aragones C, Gonzalez Z, Perez J, Sierra M, Casado G, Delgado E, Najera R. HIV Type 1 molecular epidemiology in cuba: high genetic diversity, frequent mosaicism, and recent expansion of BG intersubtype recombinant forms. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2006

Characterization of CRF27_cpx.
Vidal N, Frange P, Chaix ML, Mulanga C, Lepira F, Bazepeo SE, Goujard C, Meyer L, Rouzioux C, Delaporte E, Peeters M. Characterization of an old complex circulating recombinant form, CRF27_cpx, originating from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and circulating in France. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus, 2008

Feb 22, 2011
Intermediate prevalence of HIV type 1 primary antiretroviral resistance in Ceara State, Northeast Brazil.
Arruda E, Simoes L, Sucupira C, Medeiros M, Arruda E, Diaz RS, Lima A.Intermediate prevalence of HIV type 1 primary antiretroviral resistance in Ceara State, Northeast Brazil.AIDS Research and Hum Retroviruses, 2011Feb;27(2)

Prevalence of genotypic resistance to antiretroviral drugs in treatment-naive youths infected with diverse HIV type 1 subtypes and recombinant forms in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Mosha F, Urassa W, Aboud S, Lyamuya E, Sandstrom E, Bredell H, Williamson C.Prevalence of genotypic resistance to antiretroviral drugs in treatment-naive youths infected with diverse HIV type 1 subtypes and recombinant forms in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.AIDS Research and Hum Retroviruses, 2010 Oct 18

Genotypic impact of prolonged detectable HIV type 1 RNA viral load after HAART failure in a CRF01_AE-infected cohort.
Zolfo M, Schapiro JM, Phan V, Koole O, Thai S, Vekemans M, Fransen K, Lynen L.Genotypic impact of prolonged detectable HIV type 1 RNA viral load after HAART failure in a CRF01_AE-infected cohort.AIDS Research and Hum Retroviruses, 2010

Low prevalence of transmitted drug resistance among newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Latvia.
Balode D, Westman M, Kolupajeva T, Rozentale B, Albert J.Low prevalence of transmitted drug resistance among newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Latvia.Journal of Medical Virology, 2010 Dec;82(12)

Frequency of primary resistance to antiretroviral drugs and genetic variability of HIV-1 among infected pregnant women recently diagnosed in Luanda-Angola.
Castelbranco EP, da Silva Souza E, Cavalcanti AM, Martins AN, de Alencar LC, Tanuri A.Frequency of primary resistance to antiretroviral drugs and genetic variability of HIV-1 among infected pregnant women recently diagnosed in Luanda-Angola. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2010 Dec;26(12)

Analysis of drug resistance in children receiving antiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV-1 infection in Uganda
Towler WI, Barlow-Mosha L, Church JD, Bagenda D, Ajuna P, Mubiru M, Musoke P, Eshleman SH.Analysis of drug resistance in children receiving antiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV-1 infection in Uganda. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 May;26(5)

Emerging transmitted drug resistance in treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus-1 CRF06_cpx-infected patients in Estonia.
Avi R, Huik K, Pauskar M, Ustina V, Karki T, Krispin T, Ainsalu K, Paap P,Schmidt J, Nikitina N, Lutsar I.Emerging transmitted drug resistance in treatment- naive human immunodeficiency virus-1 CRF06_cpx-infected patients in Estonia. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2011 Feb;43(2)

Gag-protease-mediated replication capacity in HIV-1 subtype C chronic infection: associations with HLA type and clinical parameters.
Wright JK, Brumme ZL, Carlson JM, Heckerman D, Kadie CM, Brumme CJ, Wang B, Losina E, Miura T, Chonco F, van der Stok M, Mncube Z, Bishop K, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Brockman MA, Ndung'u T.Gag-protease-mediated replication capacity in HIV-1 subtype C chronic infection: associations with HLA type and clinical parameters. Journal of Virology, 2010 Oct;84(20)

Sustained appearance of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1 CRF01_AE protease and reverse transcriptase derived from protease inhibitor-naive Thai patients.
Jullaksorn D, Boonchawalit S, Uttiyoung J, Soonthornsata B, Yowang A, Krathong N, Chautrakul S, Ikuta K, Roobsoong A, Kanitvittaya S, Sawanpanyalert P, Kameoka M.Sustained appearance of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1 CRF01_AE protease and reverse transcriptase derived from protease inhibitor-naive Thai patients. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2010 Mar;41(2)

Nigerian HIV type 2 subtype A and B from heterotypic HIV type 1 and HIV type 2 or monotypic HIV type 2 infections.
Zeh C, Pieniazek D, Agwale SM, Robbins KE, Odama L, Sani-Gwarzo N, Gboun MS, Inyang US, Folks TM, Wambebe C, Kalish ML.Nigerian HIV type 2 subtype A and B from heterotypic HIV type 1 and HIV type 2 or monotypic HIV type 2 infections. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2005 Jan;21(1)

High HIV type 1 group M pol diversity and low rate of antiretroviral resistance mutations among the uniformed services in Kinshasa, DRC.
Djoko CF, Rimoin AW, Vidal N, Tamoufe U, Wolfe ND, Butel C, Lebreton M, Tshala FM, Kayembe PK, Muyembe JJ, Edidi-Basepeo S, Pike BL, Fair JN, Mbacham WF, Saylors KE, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Delaporte E, Grillo M, Peeters M.High HIV type 1 group M pol diversity and low rate of antiretroviral resistance mutations among the uniformed services in Kinshasa, DRC. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2010 Oct 18

HIV type 1 pol gene diversity and genotypic antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea.
Djoko CF, Wolfe ND, Vidal N, Tamoufe U, Montavon C, LeBreton M, Pike BL, Fair J, Mbacham WF, Benito A, Rimoin AW, Saylors K, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Grillo MP, Peeters M.HIV type 1 pol gene diversity and genotypic antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2010Sep;26(9)

Full-length genome characterization of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus lineage (SIVolc) from olive Colobus (Procolobus verus) and new SIVwrcPbb strains from Western Red Colobus (Piliocolobus badius badius) from the Tai Forest in Ivory Coast.
Liegeois F, Lafay B, Formenty P, Locatelli S, Courgnaud V, Delaporte E, Peeters M.Full-length genome characterization of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus lineage (SIVolc) from olive Colobus (Procolobus verus) and new SIVwrcPbb strains from Western Red Colobus (Piliocolobus badius badius) from the Tai Forest in Ivory Coast. Journal of Virology, 2009 Jan;83(1)

Full molecular characterization of a simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVwrcpbt from Temminck's red colobus (Piliocolobus badius temminckii) from Abuko Nature Reserve, The Gambia.
Locatelli S, Lafay B, Liegeois F, Ting N, Delaporte E, Peeters M.Full molecular characterization of a simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVwrcpbt from Temminck's red colobus (Piliocolobus badius temminckii) from Abuko Nature Reserve, The Gambia. Virology, 2008 Jun 20;376(1)

Nov 10, 2010
NRTI and NNRTI-associated resistance mutations in AZT/3TC/ABC and AZT/3TC/NVP in Uganda: DART Virology Team
Ndembi N, Goodall RL, Dunn DT, McCormick A, Burke A, Lyagoba F, Munderi P, Katundu P, Kityo C, Robertson V, Yirrell DL, Walker AS, Gibb DM, Gilks CF, Kaleebu P, Pillay D. Viral rebound and emergence of drug resistance in the absence of viral load testing: a randomized comparison between zidovudine-lamivudine plus Nevirapine and zidovudine-lamivudine plus Abacavir. Journal of Infectious Disesases,2010 Jan 1;201(1):106-13

Emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance in subtype C isolates
Orrell C, Walensky RP, Losina E, Pitt J, Freedberg KA, Wood R. HIV type-1 clade C resistance genotypes in treatment-naive patients and after first virological failure in a large community antiretroviral therapy programme Antiviral Therapy,2009;14(4):523-31

HIV-1 PR and RT from newly diagnosed persons in British Columbia, Canada 2002 - 2005
Ragonnet-Cronin M, Ofner-Agostini M, Merks H, Pilon R, Rekart M, Archibald CP, Sandstrom PA, Brooks JI. Longitudinal phylogenetic surveillance identifies distinct patterns of cluster dynamics. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes,2010 Sep 1;55(1):102-8

In vitro activity of S/GSK1349572 versus a range of INI-resistant HIV-1 isolates
Seki T, Kobayashi M, Wakasa-Morimoto C, Yoshinaga T, Sato A, Fujiwara T, Underwood M, Garvey EP, Johns BA. S/GSK1349572 is a potent next generation HIV integrase inhibitor and demonstrates a superior resistance profile substantiated with 60 integrase mutant molecular clones 17th CROI,17th CROI, February 16-19, 2010, San Francisco

NRTI and NNRTI-resistance mutations and risk of K65R in Nigerian HIV-1-infected persons in whom initial ARV therapy was unsuccessful
Hawkins CA, Chaplin B, Idoko J, Ekong E, Adewole I, Gashau W, Murphy RL, Kanki P, APIN Plus/Harvard PEPFAR Team. Clinical and genotypic findings in HIV-infected patients with the K65R mutation failing first-line antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes,2009 Oct 1;52(2):228-34

In vitro selection of INI-resistant viruses and their phenotypic characterization
Kobayashi M, Nakahara K, Seki T, Miki S, Kawauchi S, Suyama A, Wakasa-Morimoto C, Kodama M, Endoh T, Oosugi E, Matsushita Y, Murai H, Fujishita T, Yoshinaga T, Garvey E, Foster S, Underwood M, Johns B, Sato A, Fujiwara T. Selection of diverse and clinically relevant integrase inhibitor-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutants. Antiviral Research,2008 Nov;80(2):213-22

In vitro selection of raltegravir-resistant viruses and their phenotypic characterization
Goethals O, Vos A, Van Ginderen M, Geluykens P, Smits V, Schols D, Hertogs K, Clayton R. Primary mutations selected in vitro with raltegravir confer large fold changes in susceptibility to first-generation integrase inhibitors, but minor fold changes to inhibitors with second-generation resistance profiles Virology,2010 Jul 5;402(2):338-46

Molecular characterization of INI drug resistance pathways
Fransen S, Gupta S, Danovich R, Hazuda D, Miller M, Witmer M, Petropoulos CJ, Huang W. Loss of raltegravir susceptibility by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is conferred via multiple nonoverlapping genetic pathways. Journal of Virology,2009 Nov;83(22):11440-6

HIV-1 drug-resistance among ARV-treated persons in Mombasa, Kenya
Steegen K, Luchters S, Dauwe K, Reynaerts J, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, Plum J, Temmerman M, Verhofstede C. Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy and development of drug resistance in HIV-1 infected patients in Mombasa, Kenya Journal of Infectious Disesases,2009 Jun 16;6:12

HIV-1 RT sequences obtained before and after ARV and TB therapy in India
Rajesh L, Karunaianantham R, Narayanan PR, Swaminathan S. Antiretroviral drug-resistant mutations at baseline and at time of failure of antiretroviral therapy in HIV type 1- coinfected TB patients. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2009 Nov;25(11):1179-85

Nelfinavir-resistance in HIV-1-infected Brazilian children
Machado ES, Lambert JS, Afonso AO, Cunha SM, Oliveira RH, Tanuri A, Sill AM, Costa AJ, Soares MA. Alternative, age- and viral load-related routes of nelfinavir resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1- infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy Pediatr Infect Dis J,2004 Nov;23(11):1057-9

Phenotypic effects of RT K65R and K70E
Kagan RM, Lee TS, Ross L, Lloyd RM Jr, Lewinski MA, Potts SJ. Molecular basis of antagonism between K70E and K65R tenofovir-associated mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Antiviral Research,2007 Sep;75(3):210-8

HIV-1 IN diversity in Brazil
Passaes CB, Guimares ML, Fernandez SL, Lorete Rdos S, Teixeira SL, Fernandez JC, Morgado MG. Lack of primary mutations associated with integrase inhibitors among HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and F circulating in Brazil Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes,2009 May 1;51(1):7-12

Emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance during first-line therapy in Mumbai, India
Deshpande A, Jeannot AC, Schrive MH, Wittkop L, Pinson P, Fleury HJ. Analysis of RT sequences of subtype C HIV-type 1 isolates from indian patients at failure of a first-line treatment according to clinical and/or immunological WHO guidelines AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Mar;26(3):343-50

Transmitted drug resistance in Sicily, Italy
Bonura F, Tramuto F, Vitale F, Perna AM, Viviano E, Romano N, Group for HIV-1 Antiretroviral Studies in Sicily. Transmission of drug-resistant HIV type 1 strains in HAART-naive patients: a 5-year retrospective study in Sicily, Italy. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Sep;26(9):961-5

Evolution of INI resistance.
Hatano H, Lampiris H, Fransen S, Gupta S, Huang W, Hoh R, Martin JN, Lalezari J, Bangsberg D, Petropoulos C, Deeks SG. Evolution of integrase resistance during failure of integrase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy Journal Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes,2010 Aug 1;54(4):389-93

Circulating subtype A viruses in Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation
Vinogradova A, Gafurova E, Muoz-Nieto M, Rakhmanova A, Osmanov S, Thomson MM. Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 in the Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation: virtually uniform circulation of subtype A, former Soviet Union variant, with predominance of the V77I(PR) subvariant AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Apr;26(4):395-400

Transmitted drug resistance in Korea and China
Chin BS, Choi JY, Han Y, Kuang J, Li Y, Han SH, Choi H, Chae YT, Jin SJ, Baek JH, Lim YS, Kim CO, Song YG, Yong D, Li T, Kim JM. Comparison of genotypic resistance mutations in treatment-naive HIV type 1-infected patients in Korea and China. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Feb;26(2):217-21

Transmitted drug resistance in Vietnam
Phan TT, Ishizaki A, Phung DC, Bi X, Oka S, Ichimura H. Characterization of HIV type 1 genotypes and drug resistance mutations among drug-naive HIV type 1-infected patients in Northern Vietnam AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Feb;26(2):233-5

Evolution of PI resistance mutations in PR and Gag in subtype G isolates
Knops E, Dumer M, Awerkiew S, Kartashev V, Schlter E, Kutsev S, Brakier-Gingras L, Kaiser R, Pfister H, Verheyen J. Evolution of protease inhibitor resistance in the gag and pol genes of HIV subtype G isolates The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy,2010 Jul;65(7):1472-6

Transmitted drug resistance in New York
Parker MM, Gordon D, Reilly A, Horowitz HW, Waters M, Bennett R, Hallack R, Smith J, Lamson D, Aydemir A, Dvali N, Agins BD, Drusano GL, Taylor J, Resistance Study Group. Prevalence of drug-resistant and nonsubtype B HIV strains in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-infected individuals in New York State AIDS Patient Care an,2007 Sep;21(9):644-52

HIV-1 CRF07_BC outbreak in Taiwan
Chang SY, Sheng WH, Lee CN, Sun HY, Kao CL, Chang SF, Liu WC, Yang JY, Wong WW, Hung CC, Chang SC. Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 subtypes in Taiwan: outbreak of HIV type 1 CRF07_BC infection in intravenous drug users. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2006 Nov;22(11):1055-66

HIV-1 IN diversity in Thailand
Isarangkura-Na-Ayuthaya P, Kaewnoo W, Auwanit W, de Silva UC, Ikuta K, Sawanpanyalert P, Kameoka M. Appearance of drug resistance-associated mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF01_AE integrase derived from drug-naive Thai patients. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Sep 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Intersubypte HIV-1 BF recombinants in Argentina
Espinosa A, Vignoles M, Carrillo MG, Sheppard H, Donovan R, Peralta LM, Rossi D, Radulich G, Salomn H, Weissenbacher M. Intersubtype BF recombinants of HIV-1 in a population of injecting drug users in Argentina Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes,2004 May 1;36(1):630-6

PI mutations and PI cross-resistance
Rhee SY, Taylor J, Fessel WJ, Kaufman D, Towner W, Troia P, Ruane P, Hellinger J, Shirvani V, Zolopa A, Shafer RW. HIV-1 protease mutations and protease inhibitor cross resistance Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy,2010 Oct;54(10):4253-61

INI genotype-phenotype correlations for S/GSK1265744
Nakahara K, Wakasa-Morimoto C, Kobayashi M, Miki S, Noshi T, Seki T, Kanamori-Koyama M, Kawauchi S, Suyama A, Fujishita T, Yoshinaga T, Garvey EP, Johns BA, Foster SA, Underwood MR, Sato A, Fujiwara T. Secondary mutations in viruses resistant to HIV-1 integrase inhibitors that restore viral infectivity and replication kinetics Antiviral Research,2009 Feb;81(2):141-6

IN susceptibility of INI-resistant isolates to S/GSK1265744
Underwood MR, St Clair M, Johns BA, Sato A, Fujiwara T, Spreen W. S/GSK1265744: A next generation integrase inhibitor (INI) with activity against raltegravir-resistant clinical isolates 18th IAC,18th International AIDS Conference, July 18-23, 2010 Vienna

In vitro susceptibility of IN isolates from patients receiving raltegravir
da Silva D, Van Wesenbeeck L, Breilh D, Reigadas S, Anies G, Van Baelen K, Morlat P, Neau D, Dupon M, Wittkop L, Fleury H, Masquelier B. HIV-1 resistance patterns to integrase inhibitors in antiretroviral-experienced patients with virological failure on raltegravir-containing regimens. The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy,010 Jun;65(6):1262-9

Drug-resistance mutations in ARV-nave persons from Lusaka, Zambia
Hamers RL, Siwale M, Wallis CL, Labib M, van Hasselt R, Stevens WS, Schuurman R, Wensing AM, Van Vugt M, Rinke de Wit TF; PharmAccess African Studies to Evaluate Resistance. HIV-1 drug resistance mutations are present in six percent of persons initiating antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes,2010 Sep 1;55(1):95-101

Cross-resistance between nevirapine/efavirenz and etravirine in CRF01_AE isolates.
Manosuthi W, Butler DM, Chantratita W, Sukasem C, Richman DD, Smith DM. Patients infected with HIV type 1 subtype CRF01_AE and failing first-line nevirapine- and efavirenz-based regimens demonstrate considerable cross-resistance to etravirine. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Jun;26(6):609-11

HIV-1 polymerase diversity in HIV-1-infected treatment-nave persons in Cameroon
Soares EA, Makamche MF, Siqueira JD, Lumngwena E, Mbuagbaw J, Kaptue L, Asonganyi T, Seunez HN, Soares MA, Alemnji G. Molecular diversity and polymerase gene genotypes of HIV-1 among treatment-naive Cameroonian subjects with advanced disease. Journal of Clinical Virology,2010 Jul;48(3):173-9

A novel HIV-1 circularting recombinant form.
Gomez-Carrillo M, Quarleri JF, Rubio AE, Carobene MG, Dilernia D, Carr JK, Salomon H. Drug resistance testing provides evidence of the globalization of HIV type 1: a new circulating recombinant form. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2004 Aug;20(8):885-8

Intra-subtype C recombinants in Ethiopia, India, and Souh Africa
Pollakis G, Abebe A, Kliphuis A, De Wit TF, Fisseha B, Tegbaru B, Tesfaye G, Negassa H, Mengistu Y, Fontanet AL, Cornelissen M, Goudsmit J.Recombination of HIV type 1C (C’/C”) in Ethiopia: possible link of EthHIV-1C' to subtype C sequences from the high-prevalence epidemics in India and Southern Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2003 Nov;19(11):999-1008

Baseline HIV-1 Drug Resistance in Malawi
Tymchuk CN. Baseline HIV resistance in Malawi GenBank submission,Genbank Submission

The PI-resistance mutation N88D facilitates co-occurrence of D30N and L90M
Mitsuya Y, Winters MA, Fessel WJ, Rhee SY, Hurley L, Horberg M, Schiffer CA, Zolopa AR, Shafer RW. N88D facilitates the co-occurrence of D30N and L90M and the development of multidrug resistance in HIV type 1 protease following nelfinavir treatment failure. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2006 Dec;22(12):1300-5

Full-length genome HIV-1 sequencing of viruses from recently infected persons in Brazil
Sa-Filho D, Kallas EG, Sanabani S, Sabino E, Sucupira MC, Sanchez-Rosa AC, Tescarollo G, Tomiyama H, Bassichetto K, Janini LM, Diaz RS. Characterization of the full-length human immunodeficiency virus-1 genome from recently infected subjects in Brazil. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2007 Sep;23(9):1087-94

CRF11-cpx in Central Africa
Montavon C, Vergne L, Bourgeois A, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Malonga-Mouellet G, Butel C, Toure-Kane C, Delaporte E, Peeters M. Identification of a new circulating recombinant form of HIV type 1, CRF11-cpx, involving subtypes A, G, J, and CRF01-AE, in Central Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2002 Feb 10;18(3):231-6

Distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in Uganda
Baker CA, Bousheri S, Ssewanyana I, Jones NG, K'aluoch O, Baliruno D, Ssali F, Huyen Cao. HIV subtypes distribution and implication for antiretroviral treatment in a ugandan population. Journal of International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care,2007 Dec;6(4):260-3

A dominant complex circulating recombinant form in Burkina Faso
Pieniazek D, Schaefer A, Mika J, Rose L, Heslop O, Rayfield M, Folks T, Kalish M. HIV-1 complex recombinant was the predominant strain in Burkina Faso by the mid-1980s 11th CROI,11th CROI, February 8-11, 2004, San Francisco

INI Resistance
Blanco JL, Varghese V, Rhee SY, Gatell JM, Shafer RW. HIV-1 integrase inhibitor resistance: new developments and their clinical implications Submitted,Submitted

HIV-1 PR and RT polymorphisms in CRF02-AG viruses from Saint-Etienne France
Lawrence P, Lutz MF, Saoudin H, Frsard A, Cazorla C, Fascia P, Pillet S, Pozzetto B, Lucht F, Bourlet T. Analysis of polymorphism in the protease and reverse transcriptase genes of HIV type 1 CRF02-AG subtypes from drug-naive patients from Saint-Etienne, France Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes,2006 Aug 1;42(4):396-404

Origin of the HIV-1 subtype A epidemic in former Soviet Union
Thomson MM, de Parga EV, Vinogradova A, Sierra M, Yakovlev A, Rakhmanova A, Delgado E, Casado G, Munoz M, Carmona R, Vega Y, Perez-Alvarez L, Contreras G, Medrano L, Osmanov S, Najera R. New insights into the origin of the HIV type 1 subtype A epidemic in former Soviet Union's countries derived from sequence analyses of preepidemically transmitted viruses. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2007 Dec;23(12):1599-604

HIV-1 IN diversity in Venezuela
Rangel HR, Garzaro D, Fabbro R, Martinez N, Ossenkop J, Torres JR, Gutirrez CR, Pujol FH. Absence of primary integrase resistance mutations in HIV type 1-infected patients in Venezuela. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Aug;26(8):923-6

A novel subtype H isolate reported from London, UK
Holzmayer V, Aitken C, Skinner C, Ryall L, Devare SG, Hackett J Jr. Characterization of genetically diverse HIV type 1 from a London cohort: near full-length genomic analysis of a subtype H strain. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2009 Jul;25(7):721-6

Recombinants with multiple parental strains in Cameroon
Carr JK, Wolfe ND, Torimiro JN, Tamoufe U, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Eyzaguirre L, Birx DL, McCutchan FE, Burke DS. HIV-1 recombinants with multiple parental strains in low-prevalence, remote regions of Cameroon: evolutionary relics? Retrovirology,2010 Apr 28;7:39

A novel circulating recombinant form CRF47_BF reported from Spain
Fernandez-Garcia A, Perez-Alvarez L, Cuevas MT, Delgado E, Munoz-Nieto M, Cilla G, Iribarren JA, Pinilla M, Ocampo A, Miralles C, Perez-Castro S, Gonzalez-Galeano M, de Castro RO, Trigo M, Garca V, Sanchez AM, Thomson MM. Identification of a new HIV type 1 circulating BF intersubtype recombinant form (CRF47_BF) in Spain. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Jul;26(7):827-32

IN and RT sequences of wild chimpanzees infected with SIVcpz
Keele BF, Jones JH, Terio KA, Estes JD, Rudicell RS, Wilson ML, Li Y, Learn GH, Beasley TM, Schumacher-Stankey J, Wroblewski E, Mosser A, Raphael J, Kamenya S, Lonsdorf EV, Travis DA, Mlengeya T, Kinsel MJ, Else JG, Silvestri G, Goodall J, Sharp PM, Shaw GM, Pusey AE, Hahn BH. Increased mortality and AIDS-like immunopathology in wild chimpanzees infected with SIVcpz. Nature,2009 Jul 23;460(7254):515-9

Complete genome sequences of CRF01_AE isolates in Guangxi, China
Li L, Liang S, Chen L, Liu W, Li H, Liu Y, Bao Z, Wang Z, Zhuang D, Liu S, Li J. Genetic characterization of 13 subtype CRF01_AE near full-length genomes in Guangxi, China. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Jun;26(6):699-704

Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Northern Brazil
Machado LF, Ishak MO, Vallinoto AC, Lemos JA, Azevedo VN, Moreira MR, Souza MI, Fernandes LM, Souza LL, Ishak R. Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 in northern Brazil: identification of subtypes C and D and the introduction of CRF02_AG in the Amazon region of Brazil. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2009 Oct;25(10):961-6

Subtype C infection among pregnant woman in Criciuma Brazil
Rodrigues R, Manenti S, Romao PR, de Paula Ferreira JL, Batista JP, Siqueira AF, de Macedo Brigido LF. Young pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS in Criciuma, Southern Brazil, are infected almost exclusively with HIV type 1 clade C. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Mar;26(3):351-7

Unique B/C recombinant forms from Southern Brazil
Passaes CP, Guimares ML, Bello G, Morgado MG. Near full-length genome characterization of HIV type 1 unique BC recombinant forms from Southern Brazil. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2009 Dec;25(12):1339-44

Subtype F1 in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Sanabani SS, Pastena ER, Kleine Neto W, Barreto CC, Ferrari KT, Kalmar EM, Ferreira S, Sabino EC. Near full-length genome analysis of low prevalent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subclade F1 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Virology Journal,2009 Jun 16;6:78

Isolation and characterization of a novel CRF33_01B recombinant in Indonesia.
Tee KK, Kusagawa S, Li XJ, Onogi N, Isogai M, Hase S, Uenishi R, Liao H, Kamarulzaman A, Takebe Y. Isolation and characterization of a replication-competent molecular clone of an HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF33_01B). PLoS Medicine,2009 Aug 18;4(8):e6666

Two mosaic HIV-1 genomes related to CRF06_cpx and CRF18_cpx originating from DRC
Huang DD, Foley BT, Tolzmann CA, Ouma A, Bremer JW. Complex mosaic composition of near full-length genomes of two NED (NIH-ENVA-DOD) subtype panel HIV type 1 strains, BCF-Dioum and BCF-Kita, originating from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2009 Oct;25(10):1039-43

RT and PR mutations from heavily-treated individuals from Central Brazil
Cardoso LP, Stefani MM. High level of multidrug resistance mutations in HIV type 1 pol gene and resistance-associated mutations to enfuvirtide (T-20) among antiretroviral-experienced patients from central Brazil. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2009 Oct;25(10):943-50

Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 subtype C isolates in South America
Jones LR, Dilernia DA, Manrique JM, Moretti F, Salomn H, Gomez-Carrillo M. In-depth analysis of the origins of HIV type 1 subtype C in South America. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2009 Oct;25(10):951-9

HIV-1 subtype F isolates in St Petersburg, Russia
Fernandez-Garcia A, Cuevas MT, Vinogradova A, Rakhmanova A, Perez-Alvarez L, de Castro RO, Osmanov S, Thomson MM. Near full-length genome characterization of a newly identified HIV type 1 subtype F variant circulating in St. Petersburg, Russia. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2009 Nov;25(11):1187-91

An HIV-1 group M / group O recombinant in West Africa
Vessiere A, Leoz M, Brodard V, Strady C, Lemee V, Depatureaux A, Simon F, Plantier JC. First evidence of a HIV-1 M/O recombinant form circulating outside Cameroon. AIDS,2010 Apr 24;24(7):1079-82

PR and Gag mutations in HIV-1 CRF01_AE in ARV-naive persons from Thailand
Jinnopat P, Isarangkura-na-ayuthaya P, Utachee P, Kitagawa Y, de Silva UC, Siripanyaphinyo U, Kameoka Y, Tokunaga K, Sawanpanyalert P, Ikuta K, Auwanit W, Kameoka M. Impact of amino acid variations in Gag and protease of HIV type 1 CRF01_AE strains on drug susceptibility of virus to protease inhibitors. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes,2009 Nov 1;52(3):320-8

Drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 isolates from vertically infected children in Belo Horizonete, Brazil
Ferreira FG, Pinto JA, Kakehasi FM, Cleto S, Tupinambs U, Aleixo AW, Cardoso CS. Prevalence of primary drug resistance-associated mutations among HIV type 1 vertically Infected children in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Feb;26(2):229-32

HIV-1 IN diversity in South African persons
Fish MQ, Hewer R, Wallis CL, Venter WD, Stevens WS, Papathanasopoulos MA. Natural polymorphisms of integrase among HIV type 1-infected South African patients. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Apr;26(4):489-93

HIV-1 drug resistance among ARV-experienced patients in Iran
Hamkar R, Mohraz M, Lorestani S, Aghakhani A, Truong HH, McFarland W, Banifazl M, Eslamifar A, Foroughi M, Pakfetrat A, Ramezani A. Assessing subtype and drug-resistance-associated mutations among antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected patients AIDS,2010 Jul;24 Suppl 2:S85-91

A novel B/C recombinant form in Yunan, China
Li L, Chen L, Yang S, Liu Y, Li H, Bao Z, Wang Z, Zhuang D, Liu S, Li J. Near full-length genomic characterization of a novel HIV type 1 subtype B/C recombinant strain from Yunnan, China. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Jun;26(6):711-6

HIV-1 RT, PR, and IN diversity in a cohort of South African patients enrolled in the AIDS Vaccine Integrated Project
Papathanasopoulos MA, Vardas E, Wallis C, Glashoff R, Butt S, Poli G, Malnati M, Clerici M, Ensoli B. Characterization of HIV type 1 genetic diversity among South African participants enrolled in the AIDS Vaccine Integrated Project (AVIP) study. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Jun;26(6):705-9

A newly identified B/F1 recombinant in Sao Paulo, Brazil
Sanabani SS, Pastena ER, Neto WK, Martinez VP, Sabino EC. Characterization and frequency of a newly identified HIV-1 BF1 intersubtype circulating recombinant form in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Virology Journal,2010 Apr 16;7:74

Novel recombinant HIV-1 isolates in Afganistan
Sanders-Buell E, Bose M, Nasir A, Todd CS, Stanekzai MR, Tovanabutra S, Scott PT, Strathdee SA, Tjaden J, Michael NL, McCutchan FE. Distinct circulating recombinant HIV-1 strains among injecting drug users and sex workers in Afghanistan. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 May;26(5):605-8

Four group N isolates in Cameroon
Vallari A, Bodelle P, Ngansop C, Makamche F, Ndembi N, Mbanya D, Kaptu L, Grtler LG, McArthur CP, Devare SG, Brennan CA. Four new HIV-1 group N isolates from Cameroon: Prevalence continues to be low. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Jan;26(1):109-15

A novel subtype J isolate in Cameroon
Yamaguchi J, Vallari A, Ngansop C, Makamche F, Ndembi N, Mbanya D, Kaptu L, Grtler LG, Devare SG, Brennan CA. Near full-length sequence of HIV type 1 subtype J strain 04CMU11421 from Cameroon. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Jun;26(6):693-7

Pol gene diversity in HIV-1-infected ARV-nave persons in Senegal
Diop-Ndiaye H, Toure-Kane C, Leye N, Ngom-Gueye NF, Montavon C, Peeters M, Mboup SAntiretroviral drug resistance mutations in antiretroviral-naive patients from Senegal. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Oct;26(10):1133-8

A novel recombinant form CRF22_01/A1 in Cameroon
Zhao J, Tang S, Ragupathy V, Carr JK, Wolfe ND, Awazi B, Hewlett I. Identification and genetic characterization of a novel CRF22_01A1 recombinant form of HIV type 1 in Cameroon AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Sep;26(9):1033-45

HIV-1 genetic diversity among newly diagnosed HIV-1-infeced persons in Santos, Brazil
de Sa-Filho DJ, Ambar RF, Duarte NB, Matias RB, Candido V, Gagliani LH, Caseiro MM. HIV type 1 diversity from newly diagnosed patients in Santos metropolitan area/Brazil. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2009 Sep;25(9):925-9

A cluster of infections with a novel HIV-1 B/F1 recombinant in Luxembourg
Struck D, Roman F, Lambert C, Masquelier C, Servais JY, Arendt V, Hemmer R, Staub T, Devaux C, Schmit JC. A new HIV-1 B/F1 unique recombinant form (URF) outbreak in Luxembourg: near full-length genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis GenBank submission,Genbank Submission

A novel circulating recombinant form CRF38_BF1 in Uruguay
Ruchansky D, Casado C, Russi JC, Arbiza JR, Lopez-Galindez C. Identification of a new HIV Type 1 circulating recombinant form (CRF38_BF1) in Uruguay AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2009 Mar;25(3):351-6

A novel subtype A1/C recombinant in Canada
Ntemgwa M, Toni TD, Brenner BG, Routy JP, Moisi D, Oliveira M, Wainberg MA. Near full-length genomic analysis of a novel subtype A1/C recombinant HIV type 1 isolate from Canada AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2008 Apr;24(4):655-9

A novel CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC recombinant in Jiangsu China
Guo H, Guo D, Wei JF, Yang H, Huan X, Tsui SK, Yang R, Zhang C. First detection of a novel HIV Type 1 CRF01_AE/07_BC recombinant among an epidemiologically linked cohort of IDUs in Jiangsu, China AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2009 Apr;25(4):463-7

HIV-1 CRF25_cpx in Cameroon
Luk KC, Holzmayer V, Ndembi N, Swanson P, Brennan CA, Ngansop C, Mbanya D, Kaptue L, Gurtler L, Devare SG, Hackett J. Near full-length genome characterization of an HIV type 1 CRF25_cpx strain from Cameroon AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2008 Oct;24(10):1309-14

HIV-1 B/C recombinants from India
Lakhashe S, Tripathy S, Paranjape R, Bhattacharya J. Characterization of B/C recombinants of near full-length HIV type 1 from northeastern India with mosaics identical to ARE195FL but with a different ancestral origin AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2008 Jan;24(1):92-9

A novel HIV-1 A/G recombinant from Southern Cameroon
Powell RL, Konings FA, Nanfack A, Burda S, Urbanski MM, Saa D, Nyambi PN. Quasispecies analysis of novel HIV-1 recombinants of subtypes A and G reveals no similarity to the mosaic structure of CRF02_AG Journal of Medical Virology,2007 Sep;79(9):1270-85

HIV-1 CRF33_01B in persons from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tee KK, Pybus OG, Parker J, Ng KP, Kamarulzaman A, Takebe Y. Estimating the date of origin of an HIV-1 circulating recombinant form. Virology,2009 Apr 25;387(1):229-34

IN diversity in ARV-nave individuals in Bangalore, India
Neogi U, Prarthana BS, Gupta S, D'souza G, De Costa A, Kuttiatt VS, Arumugam K, Shet ANaturally occurring polymorphisms and primary drug resistance profile among antiretroviral-naive individuals in Bangalore, India AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses,2010 Oct;26(10):1097-101

May 10, 2010
Drug resistance in recent infections in the ANRS12134 study
Ayouba A, Lien TT, Nouhin J, Vergne L, Aghokeng AF, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Diop H, Kane CT, Valea, Rouet F, Joulia-Ekaza D, Toni TD, Nerrienet E, Ngole EM, Delaporte E, Costagliola D, Peeters M, Chaix ML. Low prevalence of HIV type 1 drug resistance mutations in untreated, recently infected patients from Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Senegal, Thailand, and Vietnam: the ANRS 12134 study AIDS research and human retroviruses, 2009 Nov;25(11):1193-6

Emergence of raltegravir resistance mutations in the Aquitane Cohort
Wittkop L, Breilh D, Da Silva D, Duffau P, Mercie, Raymond I, Anies G, Fleury H, Saux MC, Dabis F, Fagard C, Thiebaut R, Masquelier B, Pellegrin I; ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort. Virological and immunological response in HIV-1-infected patients with multiple treatment failures receiving raltegravir and optimized background therapy, ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort Journal of Antimicrobials and Chemotherapy, 2009 Jun;63(6):1251-5. Epub 2009 Mar 31

Transmitted resistance in Japan
Gatanaga H, Ibe S, Matsuda M, Yoshida S, Asagi T, Kondo M, Sadamasu K, Tsukada H, Masakane A, Mori H, Takata N, Minami R, Tateyama M, Koike T, Itoh T, Imai M, Nagashima M, Gejyo F, Ueda M, Hamaguchi M, Kojima Y, Shirasaka T, Kimura A, Yamamoto M, Fujita J, Oka S, Sugiura W. Drug-resistant HIV-1 prevalence in patients newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in Japan Antiviral Research, 2007 Jul;75(1):75-82. Epub 2006 Dec 14

S/GSK1349572 resistance profile
Sato A, Kobayashi M, Yoshinaga T, Fujiwara T, Underwood M, Johns B, Foster S, Hazen R, Ferris R, Brown K, Spreen W, Garvey E. S/GSK1349572 Integrase Inhibitor Resistance Profile 12th Europen AIDS conference

Rilpivirine (TMC278) Resistance Profile
Azijn H, Tirry I, Vingerhoets J, de Bethune MP, Kraus G, Boven K, Jochmans D, Van Craenenbroeck E, Picchio G, Rimsky LT. TMC278, a Next-Generation NNRTI, Active Against Wild-Type and NNRTI-Resistant HIV-1 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2010 Feb;54(2):718-27. Epub 2009 Nov 23

Drug resistance at ARV failure , South Africa
Wallis CL, Mellors JW, Venter WD, Sanne I, Stevens W. Varied HIV Drug Resistance Patterns Among Patients on Failing Antiretroviral Therapy in the South African National Roll-out Programme. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 2010 Apr 1;53(4):480-4

Drug resistance surveillance in Venezuela
Castillo J, Comegna M, Quijada W, Jauvin V, Pinson P, Masquelier B, Fleury H, Castro E. Surveillance of HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance among Naive Patients from Venezuela AIDS research and human retroviruses, 2009 Dec;25(12):1329-33

Transmitted drug resistance in central Africa
Aghokeng AF, Vergne L, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Mbangue M, Deoudje N, Mokondji E, Nambei WS, Peyou-Ndi MM, Moka JJ, Delaporte E, Peeters M. Evaluation of transmitted HIV drug resistance among recently-infected antenatal clinic attendees in four Central African countries Antiviral Therapy, 2009;14(3):401-11

Non-B subtypes in Spain
Cuevas M, Fernandez-Garcia A, Sanchez-Garcia A, Gonzalez-Galeano M, Pinilla M, Sanchez-Martinez M, Garcia V, Perez-Alvarez L; Study group of HIV-1 newly diagnosed patients in Galicia, Spain. Incidence of non-B subtypes of HIV-1 in Galicia, Spain: high frequency and diversity of HIV-1 among men who have sex with men Euro Suveillance, 2009 Nov 26;14(47). pii: 19413

Emergence of raltegravir reistance mutations in Pavia Italy
Baldanti F, Paolucci S, Gulminetti R, Brandolini M, Barbarini G, Maserati R. Early emergence of raltegravir resistance mutations in patients receiving HAART salvage regimens Journal of Medical Virology, 2010 Jan;82(1):116-22

Association of protease mutations 76V, 46I and gag mutation 431V
Knops E, Kemper I, Schulter, Pfister H, Kaiser R, Verheyen J. The evolution of protease mutation 76V is associated with protease mutation 46I and gag mutation 431V AIDS, 2010 Mar 13;24(5):779-81

Prevalence of drug resistance in untreated individuals (Sout Africa)
Iweriebor,B.C., Mavhandu,L.C., Masebe,T.M., Nwobegahay,J., Rekosh,D., Hammarskjold,M.-L., Mphahlele,J.M., Pascal,P.O Molecular epidemiology of HIV in two highly endemic areas of north-eastern South Africa

CRF01_AE in Vietnam
Liao H, Tee KK, Hase S, Uenishi R, Li XJ, Kusagawa S, Thang PH, Hien NT, Pybus OG, Takebe Y. Phylodynamic analysis of the dissemination of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Vietnam Virology, 2009 Aug 15;391(1):51-6. Epub 2009 Jun 21

Integrase variability in untreated individuals
Arruda LB, Fonseca LA, Duarte AJ, Casseb J. Genetic diversity on the integrase region of the pol gene among HIV type 1-infected patients naive for integrase inhibitors in Sao Paulo City, Brazil AIDS research and human retroviruses, 2010 Jan;26(1):105-7

Integrase variability in untreated individuals
Low A, Prada N, Topper M, Vaida F, Castor D, Mohri H, Hazuda D, Muesing M, Markowitz M. Natural polymorphisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and inherent susceptibilities to a panel of integrase inhibitors Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2009 Oct;53(10):4275-82. Epub 2009 Aug 3.

CRF-45_AKU recombinants (Central Africa)
Niama FR, Vidal N, Bazepeo SE, Mpoudi E, Toure-Kane C, Parra HJ, Delaporte E, Peeters M. CRF45_AKU, a circulating recombinant from Central Africa, is probably the common ancestor of HIV type 1 MAL and HIV type 1 NOGIL AIDS research and human retroviruses, 2009 Dec;25(12):1345-53

HIV-1 Group P
Plantier JC, Leoz M, Dickerson JE, De Oliveira F, Cordonnier F, Lemee, Damond F, Robertson DL, Simon F. A new human immunodeficiency virus derived from gorillas Nature Medicie, 2009 Aug;15(8):871-2. Epub 2009 Aug 2

HIV-1 in Kenya
Tovanabutra S, Sanders EJ, Graham SM, Mwangome M, Peshu N, McClelland RS, Muhaari A, Crossler J, Price MA, Gilmour J, Michael NL, McCutchan FM. Evaluation of HIV type 1 strains in men having sex with men and in female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya AIDS research and human retroviruses, 2010 Feb;26(2):123-31

M41L transmission cluster in Sweden
Lindstrom, Ohlis A, Huigen M, Nijhuis M, Berglund T, Bratt G, Sandstrom, Albert J. HIV-1 transmission cluster with M41L 'singleton' mutation and decreased transmission of resistance in newly diagnosed Swedish homosexual men Antiviral Therapy, 2006;11(8):1031-9

HLA-associated immune escape pathways
Brumme ZL, John M, Carlson JM, Brumme CJ, Chan D, Brockman MA, Swenson LC, Tao I, Szeto S, Rosato P, Sela J, Kadie CM, Frahm N, Brander C, Haas DW, Riddler SA, Haubrich R, Walker BD, Harrigan PR, Heckerman D, Mallal S. HLA-associated immune escape pathways in HIV-1 subtype B Gag, Pol and Nef proteins PLoS One, 2009 Aug 19;4(8):e6687

Integrase polymorphism in Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand
Nouhin,J, Donchai,T, Huynh Hoang,K.T, Ken,S, Kamkorn,J.Tran,T, Ayouba,A, Peeters,M, Chaix,M.L, Lien,T.X Natural polymorphisms of HIV-1 CRF01_AE integrase gene in ARV-naive individuals in Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand: an ANRS AC12 resistance working group study

Non B Subtypes and Trnsmitted NNRTI Resistance (Spain)
Yebra G, de Mulder M, del Romero J, Rodriguez C, Holguin. HIV-1 non-B subtypes: High transmitted NNRTI-resistance in Spain and impaired genotypic resistance interpretation due to variability Antiviral Research,

Integrase variability in untreated individuals
Avi,R. and Lutsar,I Polymorphisms of HIV-1 CRF06_cpx integrases in Estonia

Resistance in untreated individuals (Zambia)
Gonzalez,S., Gondwe,C., Tully,D.C., Minhas,V., Shea,D., Kankasa,C.,Msoka,T. and Wood,C Anti-Retroviral Therapy Resistance Mutations Present in the HIV Type 1 Subtype C pol and env Regions from Therapy Naive Patients in Zambia

Resistance in untreated individuals (South Africa)
Nwobegahay J.M, Masebe T.M, Mavhandu L.G, Iweriebor B.C, Ndjeka N.O, Manhaeve C, Bessong,P.O Prevalence of drug resistance mutations among drug-naive HIV-1infected individuals in a treatment site in the Waterberg District of South Africa

Resistance in untreated individuals (South Africa)
Nwobegahay J.M, Masebe T.M, Mavhandu L.G, Iweriebor B.C, Ndjeka N.O, Manhaeve C, Bessong,P.O Baseline Genetic Resistance of HIV Infected Patients Entering Antiretroviral Treatment Program at Two Treatment Sites in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Resistance in untreated individuals (Mumbai, India)
Chaturbhuj D.N, Hingankar N.K, Garg R, Srikantiah P, Kabra S, Haldar P, Deshmukh P.S, Jadhav S.D, Thorat S.R, Datkar S.R, Mehta P, Ingole N, Mathur M, Ramachandran A, Bachani D, Rao S, Tripathy S.P, Paranjape R.S Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Transmitted Drug Resistance Threshold Surveillance among Newly HIV Type-1 diagnosed Drug Naive Clients attending Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) sites in Mumbai, India

Fitness evolution
Weber J, Rangel HR, Chakraborty B, Marotta ML, Valdez H, Fransen K, Florence E, Connick E, Smith KY, Colebunders RL, Landay A, Kuritzkes DR, Lederman MM, Vanham G, Quinones- Mateu ME. Role of Baseline pol Genotype in HIV-1 Fitness Evolution Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome,

Resistance in untreated individuals (Sao Paulo, Brazil)
Gonsalez CR, Alcalde R, Nishiya A, Barreto CC, Silva FE, de Almeida A, Mendonca M, Ferreira F, Fernandes SS, Casseb J, Duarte AJ. Drug resistance among chronic HIV-1-infected patients naive for use of anti-retroviral therapy in Sao Paulo city Virus Research, 2007 Nov;129(2):87-90. Epub 2007 Aug 7

Resistance in untreated individuals (Chennai, India)
Iqbal HS, Solomon SS, Madhavan V, Solomon S, Balakrishnan P. Primary HIV-1 drug resistance and polymorphic patterns among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Chennai, Southern India Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care, 2009 Sep-Oct;8(5):323-7. Epub 2009 Aug 31

Darunavir resistance
Saskova G, Kozisek M, Rezacova, Brynda J, Yashina T, Kagan RM, Konvalinka J. Molecular characterization of clinical isolates of human immunodeficiency virus resistant to the protease inhibitor darunavir Journal of Virology, 2009 Sep;83(17):8810-8. Epub 2009 Jun 17

Drug resistance in Cameroon
Burda ST, Viswanath R, Zhao J, Kinge T, Anyangwe C, Tinyami ET, Haldar B, Powell RL, Jarido V, Hewlett IK, Nyambi PN. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase drug-resistance mutations in chronically infected individuals receiving or naive to HAART in Cameroon Journal of Medical Virology, 2010 Feb;82(2):187-96

Y143 integrase mutations and Raltegravir
Delelis O, Thierry S, Subra F, Simon F, Malet I, Alloui C, Sayon S, Calvez V, Deprez E, Marcelin AG, Tchertanov L, Mouscadet JF. Impact of Y143 HIV-1 integrase mutations on resistance to raltegravir in vitro and in vivo Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2010 Jan;54(1):491-501. Epub 2009 Nov 9

Transmitted resistance in China
Zhang J, Kang D, Fu J, Sun X, Lin B, Bi Z, Nkengasong JN, Yang C. Surveillance of Transmitted HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed HIV Type 1-Infected Patients in Shandong Province, China AIDS research and human retroviruses, 2010 Jan;26(1):99-103

Prevalence of NNRTI Resistance
Maiga AI, Descamps D, Morand-Joubert L, Malet I, Derache A, Cisse M, Koita V, Akonde A, Diarra B, Wirden M, Tounkara A, Verlinden Y, Katlama C, Costagliola D, Masquelier B, Calvez V, Marcelin AG. Resistance-associated mutations to etravirine (TMC-125) in antiretroviral-na√Įve patients infected with non-B HIV-1 subtypes Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2010 Feb;54(2):728-33. Epub 2009 Dec 14

Transmission cluster with RT mutation T215D
Cuevas MT, Munoz-Nieto M, Thomson MM, Delgado E, Iribarren JA, Cilla G, Fernandez-Garcia A, Santamaria JM, Lezaun MJ, Jimenez L, Lopez-Soria LM, Sota M, Contreras G, Najera R, Perez-Alvarez L; Spanish Group of HIV-1 Antiretroviral Resistance Studies in the Basque Country. HIV-1 transmission cluster with T215D revertant mutation among newly diagnosed patients from the Basque Country, Spain Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 2009 May 1;51(1):99-103

Transmitted drug resistance in Europe
Vercauteren J, Wensing AM, van de Vijver DA, Albert J, Balotta C, Hamouda O, Kucherer C, Struck D, Schmit JC, Asjo Bruckova M, Camacho RJ, Clotet B, Coughlan S, Grossman Z, Horban A, Korn K, Kostrikis L, Nielsen C, Paraskevis D, Poljak M, Puchhammer-Stockl E, Riva C, Ruiz L, Salminen M, Schuurman R, Sonnerborg A, Stanekova D, Stanojevic M, Vandamme AM, Boucher CA. Transmission of Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Is Stabilizing in Europe Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2009 Nov 15;200(10):1503-8

Resistance in untreated individuals (San Diego, US)
Smith DM, May SJ, Tweeten S, Drumright L, Pacold ME, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Pesano RL, Lie YS, Richman DD, Frost SD, Woelk CH, Little SJ. A public health model for the molecular surveillance of HIV transmission in San Diego, California AIDS, 2009 Jan 14;23(2):225-32

Protease inhibitor resistance mutation L76V
Nijhuis M, Wensing AM, Bierman WF, de Jong D, Kagan R, Fun A, Jaspers CA, Schurink KA, van Agtmael MA, Boucher CA. Failure of treatment with first-line lopinavir boosted with ritonavir can be explained by novel resistance pathways with protease mutation 76V Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2009 Sep 1;200(5):698-709

December 15, 2009
Genotypes from North India
Arora SK, Gupta S, Toor JS, Singla A. Drug resistance-associated genotypic alterations in the pol gene of HIV type 1 isolates in ART-naive individuals in North India. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2008 Feb;24(2):125-30.

Treatment-naive Genotypes from Angola
Bartolo I, Rocha C, Bartolomeu J, Gama A, Fonseca M, Mendes A, Cristina F, Thamm S, Epalanga M, Silva PC, Taveira N. Antiretroviral drug resistance surveillance among treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals in Angola: evidence for low level of transmitted drug resistance. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2009 Jul;53(7):3156-8. Epub 2009 May 11.

Genotypes from Mozambique
Bartolo I, Casanovas J, Bastos R, Rocha C, Abecasis AB, Folgosa E, Mondlane J, Manuel R, Taveira N. HIV-1 genetic diversity and transmitted drug resistance in health care settings in Maputo, Mozambique. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2009 Jul 1;51(3):323-31.

Genotypes from Mozambique - DREAM programme (sequences now available)
Bellocchi MC, Forbici F, Palombi L, Gori C, Coelho E, Svicher V, D'Arrigo R, Emberti-Gialloreti L, Ceffa S, Erba F, Marazzi MC, Silberstein FC, Perno CF. Subtype analysis and mutations to antiviral drugs in HIV-1-infected patients from Mozambique before initiation of antiretroviral therapy: results from the DREAM programme. Journal of Medical Virology, 2005 Aug;76(4):452-8.

Non-B US Genotypes
Brennan CA, Stramer SL, Holzmayer V, Yamaguchi J, Foster GA, Notari Iv EP, Schochetman G, Devare SG. Identification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 non-B subtypes and antiretroviral drug-resistant strains in United States blood donors. Transfusion, 2009 Jan;49(1):125-33.

Transmission after acute/early HIV infection (sequences now available)
Brenner BG, Roger M, Routy JP, Moisi D, Ntemgwa M, Matte C, Baril JG, Thomas R, Rouleau D, Bruneau J, Leblanc R, Legault M, Tremblay C, Charest H, Wainberg MA. High rates of forward transmission events after acute/early HIV-1 infection. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2007 Apr 1;195(7):951-9.

Genotypes from Central West Brazil
Cardoso LP, Queiroz BB, de Araujo Stefani MM. HIV-1 pol phylogenetic diversity and antiretroviral resistance mutations in treatment naive patients from Central West Brazil. Journal of Clinical Virology, 2009 Aug 12 (Epub).

Genotypes from Treatment-naive Venezuela patients
Castillo J, Comegna M, Quijada W, Jauvin V, Pinson P, Masquelier B, Fleury H, Castro E. Surveillance of HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance among Naive Patients from Venezuela. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2009 Dec 2. [Epub ahead of print].

Trends of DRM in naive Taiwan patients
Chang SY, Chen MY, Lee CN, Sun HY, Ko W, Chang SF, Chang KL, Hsieh SM, Sheng WH, Liu WC, Wu CH, Kao CL, Hung CC, Chang SC. Trends of antiretroviral drug resistance in treatment-naive patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in Taiwan. The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2008 Mar;61(3):689-93.

NVP resistance in Uganda infants after SD NVP
Church JD, Omer SB, Guay LA, Huang W, Lidstrom J, Musoke P, Mmiro F, Jackson JB, Eshleman SH. Analysis of nevirapine (NVP) resistance in Ugandan infants who were HIV infected despite receiving single-Dose (SD) NVP versus SD NVP plus daily NVP up to 6 weeks of age to prevent HIV vertical transmission. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2008 Oct 1;198(7):1075-8.

Genotypes from Basque Country (Spain)
Cuevas MT, Munoz-Nieto M, Thomson MM, Delgado E, Iribarren JA, Cilla G, Fernandez-Garcia A, Santamaria JM, Lezaun MJ, Jimenez L, Lopez-Soria LM, Sota M, Contreras G, Najera R, Perez-Alvarez L. HIV-1 transmission cluster with T215D revertant mutation among newly diagnosed patients from the Basque Country, Spain. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2009 May 1;51(1):99-103.

Genotypes from Zimbabwe
Dalai SC, de Oliveira T, Harkins GW, Kassaye SG, Lint J, Manasa J, Johnston E, Katzenstein D. Evolution and molecular epidemiology of subtype C HIV-1 in Zimbabwe. AIDS, 2009 Sep 16.

Genotypes from Argentina (Buenos Aires)
Dilernia DA, Gomez AM, Lourtau L, Marone R, Losso MH, Salomon H, Gomez-Carrillo M. Drug-resistance surveillance among newly HIV-1 diagnosed individuals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. AIDS, 2007 Oct;23(10):1201-7.

Genotypes from Brazil patients with virological failure
Dumans AT, Barreto CC, Santos AF, Arruda M, Sousa TM, Machado ES, Sabino EC, Brindeiro RM, Tanuri A, Duarte AJ, Soares MA. Distinct resistance mutation and polymorphism acquisition in HIV-1 protease of subtypes B and F1 from children and adult patients under virological failure. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 2009 Jan;9(1):62-70.

Genotypes with DRM from naive patients in Mexico (sequences now available)
Escoto-Delgadillo M, Vazquez-Valls E, Ramirez-Rodriguez M, Corona-Nakamura A, Amaya-Tapia G, Quintero-Perez N, Panduro-Cerda A, Torres-Mendoza BM. Drug-resistance mutations in antiretroviral-naive patients with established HIV-1 infection in Mexico. HIV Medicine, 2005 Nov;6(6):403-9.

Genotypes from Curitiba, Brazil
Ferreira JL, Thomaz M, Rodrigues R, Harrad D, Oliveira CM, Oliveira CA, Batista JP, Ito TS, Brigido LF. Molecular characterisation of newly identified HIV-1 infections in Curitiba, Brazil: preponderance of clade C among males with recent infections. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 2008 Dec;103(8):800-8.

Integrase Mutations at 143, 148, 155 and Raltegravir
Fransen S, Gupta S, Frantzell A, Petropoulos C, Huang W. HIV-1 Mutations at Positions 143, 148, and 155 of Integrase Define Different Genetic Barriers to Raltegravir Resistance in vivo. 16th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, 2009.

DRM in naive patients in Uganda and Rwanda
Galluzzo CM, Germinario EA, Bassani L, Mancini MG, Okong P, Vyankandondera J, Vella S, Giuliano M. Antiretroviral resistance mutations in untreated pregnant women with HIV infection in Uganda and Rwanda. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2007 Nov;23(11):1449-51.

DRM in naive patients in Sao Paulo, Brazil
Gonsalez CR, Alcalde R, Nishiya A, Barreto CC, Silva FE, de Almeida A, Mendonca M, Ferreira F, Fernandes SS, Casseb J, Duarte AJ. Drug resistance among chronic HIV-1-infected patients naive for use of anti-retroviral therapy in Sao Paulo city. Virus Research, 2007 Nov;129(2):87-90.

DRM in naive patients in Israel (sequences now available)
Grossman Z, Lorber M, Maayan S, Bar-Yacov N, Levy I, Averbuch D, Istomin V, Chowers M, Sthoeger Z, Ram D, Rudich H, Mileguir F, Pavel R, Almaliach R, Schlaeffer F, Kra-Oz Z, Mendelson E, Schapiro JM, Riesenberg K. Drug-resistant HIV infection among drug-naive patients in Israel. Clinical Infectious Disease, 2005 Jan 15;40(2):294-302.

Genotypes from the Canary Islands, Spain
Holguin A, Pena MJ, Troncoso F, Soriano V. Introduction of non-B subtypes among Spaniards newly diagnosed with HIV type 1 in the Canary Islands. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2007 Apr;23(4):498-502.

1st line treatment failure in Malawi
Hosseinipour MC, van Oosterhout JJ, Weigel R, Phiri S, Kamwendo D, Parkin N, Fiscus SA, Nelson JA, Eron JJ, Kumwenda J. The public health approach to identify antiretroviral therapy failure: high-level nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance among Malawians failing first-line antiretroviral therapy. AIDS, 2009 Jun 1;23(9):1127-34.

Genotypes from Cape Town, South Africa
Jacobs GB, Laten A, van Rensburg EJ, Bodem J, Weissbrich B, Rethwilm A, Preiser W, Engelbrecht S. Phylogenetic diversity and low level antiretroviral resistance mutations in HIV type 1 treatment-naive patients from Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2008 Jul;24(7):1009-12.

Genotypes from Canada: recent vs. established HIV infection
Jayaraman GC, Archibald CP, Kim J, Rekart ML, Singh AE, Harmen S, Wood M, Sandstrom P. A population-based approach to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug-resistant HIV among recent versus established HIV infections: results from the Canadian HIV strain and drug resistance surveillance program. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2006 May;42(1):86-90.

Genotypes from naive South India patients
Kandathil AJ, Kannangai R, Abraham OC, Rupali P, Pulimood SA, Verghese VP, Grant P, Pillay D, Sridharan G. The frequency of HIV-I drug resistance mutations among treatment-naive individuals at a tertiary care centre in south India. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 2009 Aug;20(8):522-6.

Genotypes from Singapore with acute and recent HIV infection
Lee CC, Sun YJ, Barkham T, Leo YS. Primary drug resistance and transmission analysis of HIV-1 in acute and recent drug-naive seroconverters in Singapore. HIV Medicine 2009 Jul;10(6):370-7.

DRM Genotypes from naive Greenland patients
Madsen TV, Lohse N, Jensen ES, Obel N, Ladefoged K, Gerstoft J, Petersen AB, Nielsen C, Jorgensen LB. High prevalence of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in treatment-naive patients in Greenland. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2008 Aug;24(8):1073-7.

Genotypes from southern Spain
McConnell MJ, Docobo-Perez F, Mata RC, Fernandez-Cuenca F, Viciana P, Lopez-Cortes LF, Trastoy M, Pachon J, Perez-Romero P. Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 in newly diagnosed patients in southern Spain. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2008 Jun;24(6):881-7.

Genotypes from northeast Gabon
Mintsa-Ndong A, Caron M, Plantier JC, Makuwa M, Le Hello S, Courgnaud V, Roques P, Kazanji M. High HIV Type 1 prevalence and wide genetic diversity with dominance of recombinant strains but low level of antiretroviral drug-resistance mutations in untreated patients in northeast Gabon, Central Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, Apr;25(4):411-8.

Genotypes from Hanoi, vietnam
Nguyen HT, Duc NB, Shrivastava R, Tran TH, Nguyen TA, Thang PH, McNicholl JM, Leelawiwat W, Chonwattana W, Sidibe K, Fujita M, Luu CM, Kakkar R, Bennett DE, Kaplan J, Cosimi L, Wolfe MI. HIV drug resistance threshold survey using specimens from voluntary counselling and testing sites in Hanoi, Vietnam. Antiviral Therapy, 2008;13 Suppl 2:115-21.

Treatment failure after Lopinavir/Ritonavir first-line treatment
Nijhuis M, Wensing AM, Bierman WF, de Jong D, Kagan R, Fun A, Jaspers CA, Schurink KA, van Agtmael MA, Boucher CA. Failure of treatment with first-line lopinavir boosted with ritonavir can be explained by novel resistance pathways with protease mutation 76V. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2009 Sep 1;200(5):698-709.

Genotypes from Malaga, Spain
Palacios R, Viciana I, Perez de Pedro I, de la Torre J, Ropero F, Fernandez S, Salgado F, Roldan J, de Dios Colmenero J, Marquez M, Santos J. Prevalence of primary resistance mutations in patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection in the province of Malaga (Spain). Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, 2008 Mar;26(3):141-5.

Zidovudine and Tenofovir resistance
Park SS, Hong SK, Lee SG, Yoon JS, Yoo WC, Paik SY. In vitro selection and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistant to Zidovudine and tenofovir. Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids, 2007;26(5):453-7.

Genotypes from Gauteng, South Africa
Pillay V, Ledwaba J, Hunt G, Rakgotho M, Singh B, Makubalo L, Bennett DE, Puren A, Morris L. Antiretroviral drug resistance surveillance among drug-naive HIV-1-infected individuals in Gauteng Province, South Africa in 2002 and 2004. Antiviral Therapy, 2008;13 Suppl 2:101-7.

Genotypes from Bulgaria
Salemi M, Goodenow MM, Montieri S, de Oliveira T, Santoro MM, Beshkov D, Alexiev I, Elenkov I, Elenkov I, Yakimova T, Varleva T, Rezza G, Ciccozzi M. The HIV type 1 epidemic in Bulgaria involves multiple subtypes and is sustained by continuous viral inflow from West and East European countries. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2008 Jun;24(6):771-9.

Genotypes from Gran Canaria, Spain
Sanchez Onoro M, Lopez MJ, Santana MA, Andes JM, Campelo FA. Primary antiretroviral drug resistance among patients diagnosed with HIV infection in Gran Canaria (Spain) between 2002 and 2005. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, 2007 Aug-Sep;25(7):437-40.

Genotypes from Thailand
Sirivichayakul S, Phanuphak P, Pankam T, O-Charoen R, Sutherland D, Ruxrungtham K. HIV drug resistance transmission threshold survey in Bangkok, Thailand. Antiviral Therapy, 2008;13 Suppl 2:109-13.

Genotyping naive patients with unknown infection period (sequences now available)
Smith D, Moini N, Pesano R, Cachay E, Aiem H, Lie Y, Richman D, Little S. Clinical utility of HIV standard genotyping among antiretroviral-naive individuals with unknown duration of infection. Clinical Infectious Disease, 2007 Feb 1;44(3):456-8.

HIV Surveillance in San Diego, US
Smith DM, May SJ, Tweeten S, Drumright L, Pacold ME, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Pesano RL, Lie YS, Richman DD, Frost SD, Woelk CH, Little SJ. A public health model for the molecular surveillance of HIV transmission in San Diego, California. AIDS 2009 Jan 14;23(2):225-32.

DRM in treated patients from Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Tebit DM, Sangare L, Makamste A, Yameogo S, Somlare H, Bado G, Kouldiaty BG, Sathiandee K, Tiba F, Sanou I, Ouedraogo-Traore R, Zoungrana L, Diallo I, Drabo JY, Krausslich HG. HIV Drug Resistance Pattern Among HAART-Exposed Patients With Suboptimal Virological Response in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2008 Sep 1;49(1):17-25.

RT M184V and K103N minority variants
Toni TA, Asahchop EL, Moisi D, Ntemgwa M, Oliveira M, Masquelier B, Brenner BG, Wainberg MA. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 M184V and K103N minority variants in patients with primary HIV infection. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2009 Apr;53(4):1670-2.

Combined Genotypic-Phenotypic recombinant virus assay
Van Baelen K, Rondelez E, Van Eygen V, Arien K, Clynhens M, Van den Zegel P, Winters B, Stuyver LJ. A combined genotypic and phenotypic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant virus assay for the reverse transcriptase and integrase genes. Journal of Virological Methods 2009 Nov;161(2):231-9. Epub 2009 Jun 25.

Genotypes from naive Rio de Janeiro, Brazil patients
Varella RB, Ferreira SB, de Castro MB, Zalis MG, Tavares MD. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase mutation patterns among treatment-naive patients in different stages of infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Journal of Medical Virology, 2007 Aug;79(8):1033-9.

SPREAD Programme in Europe
Vercauteren J, Wensing AM, van de Vijver DA, Albert J, Balotta C, Hamouda O, Kucherer C, Struck D, Schmit JC, Asjo B, Bruckova M, Camacho RJ, Clotet B, Coughlan S, Grossman Z, Horban A, Korn K, Kostrikis L, Nielsen C, Paraskevis D, Poljak M, Puchhammer-Stockl E, Riva C, Ruiz L, Salminen M, Schuurman R, Sonnerborg A, Stanekova D, Stanojevic M, Vandamme AM, Boucher CA. Transmission of Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Is Stabilizing in Europe. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2009 Nov 15;200(10):1503-8.

Genotypes from naive Togo patients
Yaotse DA, Nicole V, Roch NF, Mireille PD, Eric D, Martine P. Genetic characterization of HIV-1 strains in Togo reveals a high genetic complexity and genotypic drug-resistance mutations in ARV naive patients. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 2009 Jul;9(4):646-52.

Recombinant From_BC Genotypes from patients in Guangdong, China
Yu G, Li Y, Li J, Diao L, Yan X, Lin P, He Q, Wang Y, Fu X, Yang F, Long Q, Lin P. Genetic Diversity and Drug Resistance of HIV Type 1 Circulating Recombinant Form_BC among Drug Users in Guangdong Province. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2009 Sep;25(9):869-75.

July 8, 2009
Predictive Value of Resistance Test Interpretation Algorithms
Rhee SY, Fessel WJ, Liu TF, Marlowe NM, Rowland CM, Rode RA, Vandamme AM, Van Laethem K, Brun-Vezinet F, Calvez V, Taylor J, Hurley L, Horberg M, Shafer RW. Predictive Value of HIV-1 Genotypic Resistance Test Interpretation Algorithms. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2009 Aug 1;200(3):453-463.

Genotypes from treatment-naive Thai patients
Auwanit W, Isarangkura-Na-Ayuthaya P, Kasornpikul D, Ikuta K, Sawanpanyalert P, Kameoka M. Detection of drug resistance-associated and background mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF01_AE protease and reverse transcriptase derived from drug treatment- naive patients residing in central Thailand. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2009 Jun;25(6):625-31.

Genotypes from treatment-naive Estonian patients
Avi R, Huik K, Sadam M, Karki T, Krispin T, Ainsalu K, Paap P, Schmidt J, Nikitina N, Lutsar I. Absence of genotypic drug resistance and presence of several naturally occurring polymorphisms of human immunodeficiency virus-1 CRF06_cpx in treatment-naive patients in Estonia. Journal of Medical Virology, 2009 Jun;81(6):953-8.

Integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir treatment
Canducci F, Sampaolo M, Marinozzi MC, Boeri E, Spagnuolo V, Galli A, Castagna A, Lazzarin A, Clementi M, Gianotti N. Dynamic patterns of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir-based salvage therapies. AIDS, 2009 Feb 20;23(4):455-60.

Drug susceptibility in recently infected treatment-naive Ugandan patients
Eshleman SH, Laeyendecker O, Parkin N, Huang W, Chappey C, Paquet AC, Serwadda D, Reynolds SJ, Kiwanuka N, Quinn TC, Gray R, Wawer M. Antiretroviral drug susceptibility among drug-naive adults with recent HIV infection in Rakai, Uganda. AIDS, 2009 Apr 27;27(7):845-52.

Integrase genotype analysis using a prototype genotyping assay
Eshleman SH, Hudelson SE, Smith P, Hackett J, Holzmayer V, Swanson P, Devare SG, Marlowe N. Analysis of pol integrase sequences in diverse HIV type 1 strains using a prototype genotyping assay. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2009 Mar;25(3):343-5.

11-year HIV surveillance in Nagoya, Japan
Fujisaki S, Ibe S, Hattori J, Shigemi U, Fujisaki S, Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Yokomaku Y, Mamiya N, Utsumi M, Hamaguchi M, Kaneda T. An 11-Year Surveillance of HIV Type 1 Subtypes in Nagoya, Japan. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2009 Jan;25(1):15-21.

Resistance mutations in patients failing Raltegravir treatment
Garrido C, Anta L, Zahonero N, Sanchez-Hellin V, Imaz A, Garcia S, Cervero M, Gaspar J, Sarria C, Chocarro J, Barros C, Soriano V, de Mendoza C. Dynamics in the selection of resistance mutations in HIV patients failing Raltegravir and following its discountinuation. 7th European HIV Drug Resistance Workshop. 25-27 March 2009, Stockholm, Sweden, Abstract 44.

Near full-length genotypes from treatment-naive Japanese patients
Ibe S, Shigemi U, Sawaki K, Fujisaki S, Hattori J, Yokomaku Y, Mamiya N, Hamaguchi M, Kaneda T. Analysis of near full-length genomic sequences of drug-resistant HIV-1 spreading among therapy-naive individuals in Nagoya, Japan: amino acid mutations associated with viral replication activity. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2009 Aug;24(8):1121-5.

Genotypes from treatment-naive Vietnamese patients
Ishizaki A, Cuong NH, Thuc PV, Trung NV, Saijoh K, Kageyama S, Ishigaki K, Tanuma J, Oka S, Ichimura H. Profile of HIV type 1 infection and genotypic resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs in treatment-naive HIV type 1-infected individuals in Hai Phong, Viet Nam. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2009 Feb;25(2):175-82.

Preclinical evaluation of GS-9160 (new Integrase inhibitor)
Jones GS, Yu F, Zeynalzadegan A, Hesselgesser J, Chen X, Chen J, Jin H, Kim CU, Wright M, Geleziunas R, Tsiang M. Preclinical evaluation of GS-9160, a novel inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2009 Mar;53(3):1194-203.

Envelope coreceptor tropism in ARV-treated subtype C patients
Kassaye S, Johnston E, McColgan B, Kantor R, Zijenah L, Katzenstein D. Envelope coreceptor tropism, drug resistance, and viral evolution among subtype C HIV-1-infected individuals receiving nonsuppressive antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2009 Jan 1;50(1):9-18.

Drug resistance in treated Chad patients
Koyalta D, Charpentier C, Beassamda J, Rey E, Si-Mohamed A, Djemadji-Oudjeil N, Belec L. High frequency of antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-infected adults receiving first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in N'Djamena, Chad. Clinical Infectious Disease, 2009 Jul 1;49(1):155-9.

RT Mutation Q151L resistance to GS-9148, Tenofovir and Zidovudine
Kulkarni R, Margot NA, Myrick F, Svarovskaia J, Chen J, Lansdon E, Ray AS, Cihlar T, Swaminathan S, Miller MD, White KL. The HIV-1 RT Mutant Q151L Shows Decreased Replication Capacity, Selective High-Level Resistance to GS-9148 and Hypersusceptibility to Tenofovir and Zidovudine. 18th International HIV Drug Resisance Workshop, June 9-13 2009, Fort Meyers, Florida.

Genotypes from Chinese patients in rural Hubei province
Luo M, Liu H, Zhuang K, Liu L, Su B, Yang R, Tien P, Zhang L, Gui X, Chen Z. Prevalence of drug-resistant HIV-1 in rural areas of Hubei province in the People's Republic of China. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2009 Jan 1;50(1):1-8.

TMC278, a next-generation NNRTI
Rimsky LT, Azijn H, Tirry I, Vingerhoets J, Mersch R, Kraus G, de Bethune M-P, Picchio G. In-vitro resistance profile of TMC278, a next-generation NNRTI: evidence of a higher genetic barrier and a more robust resistance profile than first-generation NNRTIs. 18th International HIV Drug Resistance Workshop 2009, June 9-13 2009, Fort Meyers, Florida.

Evolution of raltegravir resistance during therapy
Sichtig N, Sierra S, Kaiser R, Daumer M, Reuter S, Schulter E, Altmann A, Fatkenheuer G, Dittmer U, Pfister H, Esser S. Evolution of raltegravir resistance during therapy. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2009 Jul;64(1):25-32.

Predominance of Subtype A genotypes from Russian patients from St Petersburg
Thomson MM, Vinogradova A, Delgado E, Rakhmanova A, Yakovlev A, Cuevas MT, Munoz M, Pinilla M, Vega Y, Perez-Alvarez L, Osmanov S, Najera R. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 in St Petersburg, Russia: Predominance of Subtype A, Former Soviet Union Variant, and Identification of Intrasubtype Subclusters. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2009 Apr 8.

HIV subtype and drug-resistance surveillance in Yunnan, China
Tu Y, Zheng Y, Jiang Y. Surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus-1 subtypes and drug resistance among volunteer blood donors in Yunnan, China.

Integrase polymorphisms and prior antiretroviral drug exposure
van Hal SJ, Herring B, Deris Z, Wang B, Saksena NK, Dwyer DE. HIV-1 integrase polymorphisms are associated with prior antiretroviral drug exposure. Retrovirology, 2009 Feb 9;6:12.

Genotypes from Cameroon patients
Yamaguchi J, Ndembi N, Ngansop C, Mbanya D, Kaptue L, Gurtler LG, Devare SG, Brennan CA HIV type 1 group M subtype G in Cameroon: five genome sequences. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2009 Apr;25(4):469-73.

March 18, 2009
Drug Resistant Mutations After WHO-Recommended Treatment
Gody JC, Charpentier C, Mbitikon O, Si-Mohamed A, LeGoff J, Gresenguet G, Belec L. High Prevalence of Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV-1 Non-B Subtype Strains From African Children Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy Regimen According to the 2006 Revised WHO Recommendations Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2008 Dec 15;49(5):566-9.

Genotypes from ARV-Experienced Thai Patients
Nukoolkarn S, Pongthapisith V, Panyim S, Leelamanit W. Sequence variability of the HIV type 1 protease gene in Thai patients experienced with antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2004 Dec;20(12):1368-72.

Genotypes from South African Patients Failing ARV Treatment
Pillay V, Pillay C, Kantor R, Venter F, Levin L, Morris L. HIV type 1 subtype C drug resistance among pediatric and adult South African patients failing antiretroviral therapy AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2008 Nov;24(11):1449-54

Etravirine Phenotypes from Patients Failing NNRTI Treatment
Poveda E, de Mendoza C, Pattery B, Gonzalez Mdel M, Villacian J, Soriano V Phenotypic impact of resistance mutations on etravirine susceptibility in HIV patients with prior failure to nonnucleoside analogues AIDS, 2008 Nov 12;22(17):2395-8

Genotypes from Cameroon
Brennan CA, Bodelle P, Coffey R, Devare SG, Golden A, Hackett J Jr, Harris B, Holzmayer V, Luk KC, Schochetman G, Swanson P, Yamaguchi J, Vallari A, Ndembi N, Ngansop C, Makamche F, Mbanya D, Gurtler LG, Zekeng L, Kaptue L. The Prevalence of Diverse HIV-1 Strains Was Stable in Cameroonian Blood Donors From 1996 to 2004 Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2008 Dec 1;49(4):432-9

Raltegravir susceptibility
Buzon MJ, Marfil S, Puertas MC, Garcia E, Clotet B, Ruiz L, Blanco J, Martinez-Picado J, Cabrera C. Raltegravir susceptibility and fitness progression of HIV type-1 integrase in patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy Antiviral Therapy, 2008;13(7):881-93

Genotypes from Cyprus
Kousiappa I, van de Vijver DA, Demetriades I, Kostrikis LG. Genetic analysis of HIV type 1 strains from newly infected untreated patients in Cyprus: high genetic diversity and low prevalence of drug resistance AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2009 Jan;25(1):23-35

Genotypes from Tanzania
Nyombi BM, Kristiansen KI, Bjune G, Muller F, Holm-Hansen C. Diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in Kagera and Kilimanjaro regions, Tanzania AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2008 Jun;24(6):761-9

Genotypes from Iran
Soheilli ZS, Ataiee Z, Tootian S, Zadsar M, Amini S, Abadi K, Jauvin V, Pinson P, Fleury HJ, Samiei S. Presence of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Iran AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2009 Jan;25(1):123-4

December 3, 2008
Genotypes from Gabon
Caron M, Makuwa M, Souquiere S, Descamps D, Brun-Vezinet F, Kazanji M. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroprevalence and antiretroviral drug resistance-associated mutations in miners in Gabon, central Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2008 Sep;24(9):1225-8.

Genotypes from Burkina Faso
Tebit DM, Ganame J, Sathiandee K, Nagabila Y, Coulibaly B, Krausslich HG. Diversity of HIV in rural Burkina Faso. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2006 Oct 1;43(2):144-52.

Update of Etravirine DRMs from DUET-1 and DUET-2
Vingerhoets J, Peeters M, Azijn H, Tambuyzer L, Hoogstoel A, Nijs S, de Bethune MP, Picchio G. An update of the list of NNRTI mutations associated with decreased virologic response to etravirine (ETR): multivariate analyses on the pooled DUET-1 and DUET-2 clinical trial data. 17th International HIV Drug Resistance Workshop 2008

Comparison of different regimen types in treating ARV-naive patients
von Wyl V, Yerly S, Boni J, Burgisser P, Klimkait T, Battegay M, Furrer H, Telenti A, Hirschel B, Vernazza PL, Bernasconi E, Rickenbach M, Perrin L, Ledergerber B, Gunthard HF. Emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance in previously untreated patients initiating combination antiretroviral treatment: a comparison of different regimen types. Archives of Internal Medicine 2007 Sep 10;167(16):1782-90.

Darunavir/ritonavir virologic failures in Phase III TITAN trail
De Meyer S, Lathouwers E, Dierynck I, De Paepe E, Van Baelen B, Vangeneugden T, Spinosa-Guzman S, Picchio G, de Bethune MP Characterization of virologic failures on darunavir/ritonavir in the randomized, controlled, Phase III TITAN trial in treatment-experienced patients. 15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections

Integrase mutations selected with Elvitegravir
Goethals O, Clayton R, Van Ginderen M, Vereycken I, Wagemans E, Geluykens P, Dockx K, Strijbos R, Smits V, Vos A, Meersseman G, Jochmans D, Vermeire K, Schols D, Hallenberger S, Hertogs K. Resistance mutations in HIV-1 integrase selected with Elvitegravir confer reduced susceptibility to a wide range of integrase inhibitors. Journal of Virology 2008 Nov;82(21):10366-74.

TMC278: strategic flexibility explains potency against DRMs
Das K, Bauman JD, Clark AD Jr, Frenkel YV, Lewi PJ, Shatkin AJ, Hughes SH, Arnold E. High-resolution structures of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase/TMC278 complexes: strategic flexibility explains potency against resistance mutations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2008 Feb 5;105(5):1466-71.

Rare resistance profile of patient who failed regimen with tenofovir DF
Delaugerre C, Roudiere L, Peytavin G, Rouzioux C, Viard JP, Chaix ML. Selection of a rare resistance profile in an HIV-1-infected patient exhibiting a failure to an antiretroviral regimen including tenofovir DF. Journal of Clinical Virology 2005 Mar;32(3):241-4.

Differences in gag length in different subtypes
Holguin A, Alvarez A, Soriano V. Differences in the length of gag proteins among different HIV type 1 subtypes. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2005 Oct;21(10):886-93.

Genotypes from southern China
Laeyendecker O, Zhang GW, Quinn TC, Garten R, Ray SC, Lai S, Liu W, Chen J, Yu XF. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes in southern China. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2005 Mar 1;38(3):356-62.

Genotypes from western India
Lall M, Gupta RM, Sen S, Kapila K, Tripathy SP, Paranjape RS. Profile of primary resistance in HIV-1-infected treatment-naive individuals from Western India. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2008 Jul;24(7):987-90.

NVP resistance mutations after single-dose NVP in women from Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire
Toni TD, Masquelier B, Minga A, Anglaret X, Danel C, Coulibaly A, Chenal H, Dabis F, Salamon R, Fleury HJ. Characterization of nevirapine (NVP) resistance mutations and HIV type 1 subtype in women from Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) after NVP single-dose prophylaxis of HIV type 1 mother-to-child transmission. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2005 Dec;21(12):1031-4.
September 16, 2008
Integrase L68V/I Associates with E92Q and Increases Resistance
Goodman DD, Hluhanich R, Waters J, Margot NA, Fransen S, Gupta S, Huang W, Parkin N, Borroto-Esoda K, Svarovskala ES, Miller MD, McColl DJ Integrase Inhibitor Resistance Involves Complex Interactions Among Primary and Secondary Resistance Mutations: A Novel Mutation L68V/I Associates with E92Q and Increases Resistance International HIV Drug Resistance Workshop, Sitges, Spain 2008.

Genotypes/Treatments from Mali and Burkina Faso Patients
Sylla M, Chamberland A, Boileau C, Traore HA, Ag-Aboubacrine S, Cisse M, Koala S, Drabo J, Diallo I, Niamba P, Tremblay-Sher D, Machouf N, Rashed S, Nickle DC, Nguyen VK, Tremblay CL; ATARAO Group. Characterization of drug resistance in antiretroviral-treated patients infected with HIV-1 CRF02_AG and AGK subtypes in Mali and Burkina Faso Antiviral Therapy, 2008;13(1):141-8.

Raltegravir Salvage Therapy Failure
Charpentier C, Karmochkine M, Laureillard D, Tisserand P, Belec L, Weiss L, Si-Mohamed A, Piketty C. Drug resistance profiles for the HIV integrase gene in patients failing raltegravir salvage therapy HIV Medicine, 2008 Jul 21.

Transmitted Drug Resistance in Women from Tazania
Somi GR, Kibuka T, Diallo K, Tuhuma T, Bennett DE, Yang C, Kagoma C, Lyamuya EF, Swai RO, Kassim S. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance among women attending antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Antiviral Therapy, 2008;13 Suppl 2:77-82.

Genotypes from Denmark
Andresen BS, Vinner L, Tang S, Bragstad K, Kronborg G, Gerstoft J, Corbet S, Fomsgaard A. Characterization of near full-length genomes of HIV type 1 strains in Denmark: basis for a universal therapeutic vaccine AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2007 Nov;23(11):1442-8.

Evidence for positive epistasis in HIV-1
Bonhoeffer S, Chappey C, Parkin NT, Whitcomb JM, Petropoulos CJ. Evidence for positive epistasis in HIV-1 Science, 2004 Nov 26;306(5701):1547-50. Note: Sequences now available.

Genotypes from Brazilian Blood Donors (Significant Prevalence of B/F1 Recombinants)
Brennan CA, Brites C, Bodelle P, Golden A, Hackett J Jr, Holzmayer V, Swanson P, Vallari A, Yamaguchi J, Devare S, Pedroso C, Ramos A, Badaro R. HIV-1 strains identified in Brazilian blood donors: significant prevalence of B/F1 recombinants AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2007 Nov;23(11):1434-41.

K65R Resistance to Tenofovir - Subtype C
Brenner BG, Oliveira M, Doualla-Bell F, Moisi DD, Ntemgwa M, Frankel F, Essex M, Wainberg MA. HIV-1 subtype C viruses rapidly develop K65R resistance to tenofovir in cell culture AIDS, 2006 Jun 12;20(9):F9-F13.

Evidence of Differential HLA Class I-Mediated Viral Evolution
Brumme ZL, Brumme CJ, Heckerman D, Korber BT, Daniels M, Carlson J, Kadie C, Bhattacharya T, Chui C, Szinger J, Mo T, Hogg RS, Montaner JS, Frahm N, Brander C, Walker BD, Harrigan PR. Evidence of differential HLA class I-mediated viral evolution in functional and accessory/regulatory genes of HIV-1 PLoS Pathogens, 2007 Jul;3(7):e94.

Genotypes from Newly Diagnosed Patients in Argentina, 2003-2005.
Dilernia DA, Gomez AM, Lourtau L, Marone R, Losso MH, Salomon H, Gomez-Carrillo M. HIV type 1 genetic diversity surveillance among newly diagnosed individuals from 2003 to 2005 in Buenos Aires, Argentina AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2007 Oct;23(10):1201-7.

Complex Inter-Recombinant Genotypes from Spain
Holguin, Lospitao E, Lopez M, de Arellano ER, Pena MJ, del Romero J, Martin C, Soriano V. Genetic characterization of complex inter-recombinant HIV-1 strains circulating in Spain and reliability of distinct rapid subtyping tools Journal of Medical Virology, 2008 Mar;80(3):383-91.

Protease Genotypes from Vellore, India
Kandathil AJ, Kannangai R, Abraham OC, Sudarsanam TD, Pulimood SA, Sridharan G. Genotypic resistance profile of HIV-1 protease gene: A preliminary report from Vellore, south India Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2008 Apr-Jun;26(2):151-4.

Genotypes from Nairobi, Kenya with High Proportion of Intersubtype Recombinants
Land AM, Ball TB, Luo M, Rutherford J, Sarna C, Wachihi C, Kimani J, Plummer FA. Full-length HIV type 1 proviral sequencing of 10 highly exposed women from Nairobi, Kenya reveals a high proportion of intersubtype recombinants AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2008 Jun;24(6):865-72.

Persistence of Transmitted Drug Resistance
Little SJ, Frost SD, Wong JK, Smith DM, Pond SL, Ignacio CC, Parkin NT, Petropoulos CJ, Richman DD. Persistence of transmitted drug resistance among subjects with primary human immunodeficiency virus infection Journal of Virology, 2008 Jun;82(11):5510-8.

CRF01_AE Genotypes from Fujian, China.
Liu J, Yue J, Wu S, Yan Y. Polymorphisms and drug resistance analysis of HIV-1 CRF01_AE strains circulating in Fujian Province, China Archives of Virology, 2007;152(10):1799-805.

Protease Genotypes from PI-Naive Chinese Patients
Liu L, Lu HZ, Henry M, Tamalet C. Polymorphism and antiretroviral drug resistance patterns in the protease gene of HIV-1 subtypes infecting PI naive Chinese patients Unpublished

Evaluation of Dried Blood Spot for HIV Drug Resistance Testing
McNulty A, Jennings C, Bennett D, Fitzgibbon J, Bremer JW, Ussery M, Kalish ML, Heneine W, Garcia-Lerma JG. Evaluation of dried blood spots for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance testing Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2007 Feb;45(2):517-21.

Transmitted Drug Resistance in Entebbe, Uganda
Ndembi N, Lyagoba F, Nanteza B, Kushemererwa G, Serwanga J, Katongole-Mbidde E, Grosskurth H, Kaleebu P; Uganda HIV Drug Resistance Working Group. Transmitted Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Surveillance among Newly HIV Type 1-Diagnosed Women Attending an Antenatal Clinic in Entebbe, Uganda AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2008 Jun;24(6):889-95.

Genotypes from Newly-Diagnosed Patients in Portugal
Palma AC, Araujo F, Duque V, Borges F, Paixao MT, Camacho R; Portuguese SPREAD Network. Molecular epidemiology and prevalence of drug resistance-associated mutations in newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Portugal Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 2007 Jun;7(3):391-8.

Subtype F Genotypes from Romania
Paraschiv S, Otelea D, Dinu M, Maxim D, Tinischi M. Polymorphisms and resistance mutations in the protease and reverse transcriptase genes of HIV-1 F subtype Romanian strains International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2007 Mar;11(2):123-8.

Tipranavir/Darunavir Susceptibility
Poveda E, de Mendoza C, Parkin N, Choe S, Garcia-Gasco P, Corral A, Soriano V. Evidence for different susceptibility to tipranavir and darunavir in patients infected with distinct HIV-1 subtypes AIDS, 2008 Mar 12;22(5):611-6.

Phenotypes - Integrase Inhibitor L731,988 and L810,810
Van Baelen K, Clynhens M, Rondelez E, Van Eygen V, Van Den Zegel P, Vermeiren H, Vandenbroucke I, Stuyver LJ. Low Level of Baseline Resistance to Integrase Inhibitors L731,988 and L810,810 in Randomly Selected Subtype B and Non-B HIV-1 Strains International HIV Drug Resistance Workshop, Barbados 2007.
June 9, 2008
NVP Resistance Mutations in Treatment-naive Patients with Subtypes A, C, and D
Church JD, Hudelson SE, Guay LA, Chen S, Hoover DR, Parkin N, Fiscus SA, Mmiro F, Musoke P, Kumwenda N, Jackson JB, Taha TE, Eshleman SH. HIV type 1 variants with nevirapine resistance mutations are rarely detected in antiretroviral drug-naive African women with subtypes A, C, and D. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2008 Jan;24(1):7-14.

Genotypes from Santos, Brazil
de Sa-Filho DJ, Da Silva Soares M, Candido V, Gagliani LH, Cavaliere E, Diaz RS, Caseiro MM. HIV Type 1 pol Gene Diversity and Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Santos, Brazil AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2008 Mar;24(3):347-53.

Elvitegravir, Raltegravir and L870,810 Phenotypes
Hombrouck A, Voet A, Van Remoortel B, Desadeleer C, De Maeyer M, Debyser Z, Witvrouw M. Mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase confer resistance to the naphthyridine L-870,810 and cross-resistance to the clinical trial drug GS-9137 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2008 Jun;52(6):2069-78.

Genotypes from Nagoya, Japan, 1999-2006
Ibe S, Hattori J, Fujisaki S, Shigemi U, Fujisaki S, Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kazumi T, Yokomaku Y, Mamiya N, Hamaguchi M, Kaneda T. Trend of drug-resistant HIV type 1 emergence among therapy-naive patients in Nagoya, Japan: an 8-year surveillance from 1999 to 2006 AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2008 Jan;24(1):7-14.

Genotypes from Patients who Failed Raltegravir Treatment
Malet I, Delelis O, Valantin MA, Montes B, Soulie C, Wirden M, Tchertanova L, Peytavin G, Reynes J, Mouscadet JF, Katlama C, Calvez V, Marcelin AG. Mutations Associated with Failure of Raltegravir Treatment affect integrase sensitivity to the inhibitor in vitro Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2008 Apr;52(4):1351-8.

Genotypes from Patients from KwaZulu Natal, South Africa after First-Time ARV Treatment
Marconi VC, Sunpath H, Lu Z, Gordon M, Koranteng-Apeagyei K, Hampton J, Carpenter S, Giddy J, Ross D, Holst H, Losina E, Walker BD, Kuritzkes DR. Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance after failure of a first highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa Clinical Infectious Disease 2008 May 15;46(10):1589-97.

Genotypes from the Southern Central African Republic
Punzi G, Saracino A, Brindicci G, Scarabaggio T, Lagioia A, Angarano G, Monno L. HIV infection and protease genetic diversity in a rural area of the Southern Central African Republic Journal of Medical Virology 2005 Dec;77(4):457-9.

Integrase Inhibitor Phenotypes
Ren C, May S, Miletti T, Bedard J. In vitro Cross-resistance Studies of Five Different Classes of Integrase Inhibitors in Recombinant HIV-1 Antiviral Therapy 2007 12:S3 (abstract no. 1).

The Discovery of Raltegravir
Rowley M. The Discovery of Raltegravir, an Integrase Inhibitor for the Treatment of HIV Infection Progress in Medicinal Chemistry 2008;46:1-28.

Genotypes from Newly Diagnosed Patients from Belgium, 2003-2006
Vercauteren J, Derdelinckx I, Sasse A, Bogaert M, Ceunen H, De Roo A, De Wit S, Deforche K, Echahidi F, Fransen K, Goffard JC, Goubau P, Goudeseune E, Yombi JC, Lacor P, Liesnard C, Moutschen M, Pierard D, Rens R, Schrooten Y, Vaira D, Van Den Heuvel A, Van Der Gucht B, Van Ranst M, Van Wijngaerden E, Vandercam B, Vekemans M, Verhofstede C, Clumeck N, Vandamme AM, Van Laethem K. Prevalence and Epidemiology of HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance among Newly Diagnosed Therapy-Naive Patients in Belgium from 2003 to 2006 AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2008 Mar;24(3):355-62.
March 12, 2008
Elvitegravir Genotype-Phenotypes
Shimura K, Kodama E, Sakagami Y, Matsuzaki Y, Watanabe W, Yamataka K, Watanabe Y, Ohata Y, Doi S, Sato M, Kano M, Ikeda S, Matsuoka M. Broad Anti-Retroviral Activity and Resistance Profile of a Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Integrase Inhibitor, Elvitegravir (JTK-303/GS-9137). Journal of Virology 2008 Jan;82(2):764-74.

Genotypes from ARV-Experienced Patients in Pune, India
Sen S, Tripathy SP, Patil AA, Chimanpure VM, Paranjape RS. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance mutations in antiretroviral treatment-experienced patients from Pune, India. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Oct;23(10):1303-8.

Genotypes from ARV-Naive Patients from the former Soviet Union
Vazquez de Parga E, Rakhmanova A, Perez-Alvarez L, Vinogradova A, Delgado E, Thomson MM, Casado G, Sierra M, Munoz M, Carmona R, Vega Y, Contreras G, Medrano L, Osmanov S, Najera R. Analysis of drug resistance-associated mutations in treatment-naive individuals infected with different genetic forms of HIV-1 circulating in countries of the former Soviet Union. Journal of Medical Virology 2005 Nov;77(3):337-44. Note: Sequences are now in Genbank.

Genotypes from ARV-Naive Patients in Mali
Derache A, Traore O, Koita V, Sylla A, Tubiana R, Simon A, Canestri A, Carcelain G, Katlama C, Calvez V, Cisse M, Marcelin AG. Genetic diversity and drug resistance mutations in HIV type 1 from untreated patients in Bamako, Mali. Antiviral Therapy 2007;12(1):123-9.
Click this link for additional sequences

Genotypes from ARV-Treated and Naive patients in 2 Brazillian Cities
Eyer-Silva WA, Couto-Fernandez JC, Silva-de-Jesus C, Morgado, MG. Prevalence of HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance Mutations in Treatment-Naive and Experienced Patients from Resource-Limited Settings with Universal Access to Antiretroviral Therapy: a Survey in Two Small Brazilian Cities. Unpublished

Genotypes from Honduran Patients at the Beginning of a National ART Program
Lloyd B, O'Connell RJ, Michael NL, Aviles R, Palou E, Hernandez R, Cooley J, Jagodzinski LL. Prevalence of Resistance Mutations in HIV-1 Infected Hondurans at the Beginning of the National Antiretroviral Therapy Program. Unpublished

Prevalence of Primary Antiretroviral Resistance Trends in Korea
Bang JI, Song KH, Kim SH, Cho JH, Park WB, Park SW, Kim HB, Kim NJ, Oh MD, Choe KW. Prevalence of primary antiretroviral resistance: trends in Korea. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2008 Jan;24(1):83-5.

Subtype C and CB Recombinants in Brazil
Brigido LF, Nunes CC, Oliveira CM, Knoll RK, Ferreira JL, Freitas CA, Alves MA, Dias C, Rodrigues R. HIV type 1 subtype C and CB Pol recombinants prevail at the cities with the highest AIDS prevalence rate in Brazil. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Dec;23(12):1579-86.

Genotype-phenotypes (Subtype A - NNRTI)
Eshleman SH, Jones D, Galovich J, Paxinos EE, Petropoulos CJ, Jackson JB, Parkin N. Phenotypic drug resistance patterns in subtype A HIV-1 clones with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase resistance mutations. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2006 Mar;22(3):289-93.

Genotype - Subtype D from South Africa
Jacobs G, Loxton A, Laten, A, Engelbrecht S. Complete genome sequencing of a non-syncytium-inducing HIV type 1 subtype D strain from Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Dec;23(12):1575-8.

Subtype C Genotypes from Southern Mozambique
Lahuerta M, Aparicio E, Bardaji A, Marco S, Sacarlal J, Mandomando I, Alonso P, Martinez MA, Menendez C, Naniche D. Rapid Spread and Genetic Diversification of HIV Type 1 Subtype C in a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2008 Feb;24(2):327-35..

Genotypes of Cambodian Patients after ART Prophylaxis Against HIV Perinatal Transmission
Ly N, Phoung V, Min DC, Srey C, Kruy LS, Koum K, Chhum V, Glaziou P, Fleury HJ, Reynes JM. Reverse transcriptase mutations in Cambodian CRF01_AE isolates after antiretroviral prophylaxis against HIV Type 1 perinatal transmission. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Dec;23(12):1563-8.

Genotypes of Children after Exposure to Single-Dose Nevirapine
Martinson NA, Morris L, Gray G, Moodley D, Pillay V, Cohen S, Dhlamini P, Puren A, Bhayroo S, Steyn J, McIntyre JA. Selection and persistence of viral resistance in HIV-infected children after exposure to single-dose nevirapine. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2007 Feb 1;44(2):148-53.

Genotypes from Patients in Yaounde, Cameroon
Ndembi N, Abraha A, Pilch H, Ichimura H, Mbanya D, Kaptue L, Salata R, Arts EJ. Molecular Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 in Yaounde, Cameroon: Evidence of Major Drug Resistance Mutations in Newly Diagnosed Patients Infected with Subtypes Other than Subtype B. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2008 Jan;46(1):177-84.

Genotypes of Infants whose Mothers Received Peripartum Nevirapine Prophylaxis in Jos, Nigeria
Ojesina AI, Mullins C, Imade G, Samuels J, Sankale JL, Pam S, Sagay S, Idoko J, Kanki PJ. Characterization of HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase mutations in infants infected by mothers who received peripartum nevirapine prophylaxis in Jos, Nigeria. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Dec;23(12):1587-92.

Genotype Diversity in the Seychelles
Razafindratsimandresy R, Hollanda J, Soares JL, Rousset D, Chetty AP, Reynes JM. HIV type 1 diversity in the Seychelles. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Jun;23(6):761-3.

Genotype Diversity in Shanghai, China
Zhong P, Pan Q, Ning Z, Xue Y, Gong J, Zhen X, Zhou L, Sheng F, Zhang W, Gai J, Cheng H, Yue Q, Xing H, Zhuang M, Lu W, Shao Y, Kang L. Genetic diversity and drug resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains circulating in Shanghai. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 May 1;195(9):1283-93.
November 16, 2007


RT K70G+M184V Genotype with Tenofovir/Emtricitabine HAART
Bradshaw D, Malik S, Booth C, Van Houtte M, Pattery T, Waters A, Ainsworth J, Geretti AM. Characterization of a novel drug-resistance pattern associated with the mutations K70G and M184V in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2007 Sep 17.

Elvitegravir (GS-9137) Genotype-Phenotypes
McColl DJ, Fransen S, Gupta S, Parkin N, Margot N, Chuck S, Cheng AK, Miller MD. Resistance and Cross-Resistance to First Generation Integrase Inhibitors: Insights from a Phase 2 Study of Elvitegravir (GS-9137). Antiviral Therapy 2007; 12:S11 (abstract no. 9).

RT 67N+70R+215Y Genotype in Subtype C Patients with ZDV/ddI HAART
Novitsky V, Wester CW, DeGruttola V, Bussmann H, Gaseitsiwe S, Thomas A, Moyo S, Musonda R, Van Widenfelt E, Marlink RG, Essex M. The reverse transcriptase 67N 70R 215Y genotype is the predominant TAM pathway associated with virologic failure among HIV type 1C-infected adults treated with ZDV/ddI-containing HAART in southern Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Jul;23(7):868-78.

Genotypes from Drug-Naive Children in Southern India
Soundararajan L, Karunaianandham R, Jauvin V, Schrive MH, Ramachandran R, Narayanan PR, Fleury HJ, Swaminathan S. Characterization of HIV-1 isolates from antiretroviral drug-naive children in southern India. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Sep;23(9):1119-26.

Subtype G is a Circulating Recombinant Form
Abecasis AB, Lemey P, Vidal N, de Oliveira T, Peeters M, Camacho R, Shapiro B, Rambaut A, Vandamme AM. Recombination confounds the early evolutionary history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: subtype G is a circulating recombinant form. Journal of Virology 2007 Aug;81(16):8543-51.

Genotypes from Wild Mustached Monkeys
Aghokeng AF, Bailes E, Loul S, Courgnaud V, Mpoudi-Ngolle E, Sharp PM, Delaporte E, Peeters M. Full-length sequence analysis of SIVmus in wild populations of mustached monkeys (Cercopithecus cephus) from Cameroon provides evidence for two co-circulating SIVmus lineages. Virology 2007 Apr 10;360(2):407-18.

Genotypes from Elite Suppressors
Blankson JN, Bailey JR, Thayil S, Yang HC, Lassen K, Lai J, Gandhi SK, Siliciano JD, Williams TM, Siliciano RF. Isolation and characterization of replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from a subset of elite suppressors. Journal of Virology 2007 Mar;81(5):2508-18.

Genotypes from Kazakhstan
Eyzaguirre LM, Erasilova IB, Nadai Y, Saad MD, Kovtunenko NG, Gomatos PJ, Zeman VV, Botros BA, Sanchez JL, Birx DL, Earhart KC, Carr JK. Genetic characterization of HIV-1 strains circulating in Kazakhstan. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2007 Sep 1;46(1):19-23.

Genotypes from Recently Infected IDU's in Western China
Liao L, Xing H, Li X, Ruan Y, Zhang Y, Qin G, Shao Y. Genotypic analysis of the protease and reverse transcriptase of HIV type 1 isolates from recently infected injecting drug users in western China. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Aug;23(8):1062-5.

CRF 13_cpx Genotypes from Cameroon
Luk KC, Holzmayer V, Yamaguchi J, Swanson P, Brennan CA, Ngansop C, Mbanya D, Gayum H, Djuidje MN, Ndembi N, Kamdem D, Kaptue L, Gurtler L, Devare SG, Hackett J. Near full-length genome characterization of three additional HIV type 1 CRF13_cpx strains from Cameroon. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Feb;23(2):297-302.

CRF 37_cpx Genotype from Cameroon
Powell RL, Zhao J, Konings FA, Tang S, Ewane L, Burda S, Urbanski MM, Saa DR, Hewlett I, Nyambi PN. Circulating recombinant form (CRF) 37_cpx: an old strain in Cameroon composed of diverse, genetically distant lineages of subtypes A and G. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Jul;23(7):923-33.

CRF 36_cpx Genotypes from Cameroon
Powell RL, Zhao J, Konings FA, Tang S, Nanfack A, Burda S, Urbanski MM, Saa DR, Hewlett I, Nyambi PN. Identification of a novel circulating recombinant form (CRF) 36_cpx in Cameroon that combines two CRFs (01_AE and 02_AG) with ancestral lineages of subtypes A and G. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Aug;23(8):1008-19.

Genotypes from Treatment-Naive Patients in Accra, Ghana
Sagoe KW, Dwidar M, Lartey M, Boamah I, Agyei AA, Hayford AA, Mingle JA, Arens MQ. Variability of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 polymerase gene from treatment naive patients in Accra, Ghana. Journal of Clinical Virology 2007 Oct;40(2):163-7.

CRF 35_AD Genotypes in IDU's from Afghanistan
Sanders-Buell E, Saad MD, Abed AM, Bose M, Todd CS, Strathdee SA, Botros BA, Safi N, Earhart KC, Scott PT, Michael N, McCutchan FE. A nascent HIV type 1 epidemic among injecting drug users in Kabul, Afghanistan is dominated by complex AD recombinant strain, CRF35_AD. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Jun;23(6):834-9.

SIVcpz Genotypes From Fecal Consensus Sequences
Takehisa J, Kraus MH, Decker JM, Li Y, Keele BF, Bibollet-Ruche F, Zammit KP, Weng Z, Santiago ML, Kamenya S, Wilson ML, Pusey AE, Bailes E, Sharp PM, Shaw GM, Hahn BH. Generation of infectious molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus from fecal consensus sequences of wild chimpanzees. Journal of Virology 2007 Jul;81(14):7463-75.

Genotypes of Recently Infected Patients in Cote d'Ivoire
Toni T, Masquelier B, Minga A, Anglaret X, Danel C, Coulibaly A, Chenal H, Dabis F, Salamon R, Fleury HJ, Primo-CI ANRS 1220 Study Group. HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance in recently infected patients in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: A 4-year survey, 2002-2006 AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Sep;23(9):1155-60.

CRF 34_01B Genotypes from IDU's in Thailand
Tovanabutra S, Kijak GH, Beyrer C, Gammon-Richardson C, Sakkhachornphop S, Vongchak T, Jittiwutikarn J, Razak MH, Sanders-Buell E, Robb ML, Suriyanon V, Birx DL, Michael NL, Celentano DD, McCutchan FE. Identification of CRF34_01B, a second circulating recombinant form unrelated to and more complex than CRF15_01B, among injecting drug users in northern Thailand. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007 Jun;23(6):829-33.

CRF15_01B-like Genotype from Thailand
Warachit J, Iwabu Y, Li YG, Li GM, Isarangkura P, Ibrahim MS, Balachandra K, Tsuji S, Ikuta K. Aberrant life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF15_01B-like clinical isolates from Thailand in human CD4+ T-cell lines. Microbes and Infection 2007 Apr;9(4):449-59.
July 25, 2007
Integrase genotypes
Lataillade M, Chiarella J, Kozal, MJ. Natural polymorphism of the HIV-1 integrase gene and mutations associated with integrase inhibitor resistance Antiviral Therapy 2007 12:563-570.

Genotype-treatment in Chile
Rios M, Delgado E, Perez-Alvarez L, Fernandez J, Galvez P, de Parga EV, Yung V, Thomson MM, Najera R Antiretroviral drug resistance and phylogenetic diversity of HIV-1 in Chile Journal of Medical Virology 2007.

RT & PR genotype-treatment in W. Africa
Seyler C, Adje-Toure C, Messou E, Dakoury-Dogbo N, Rouet F, Gabillard D, Nolan M, Toure S, Anglaret X. Impact of genotypic drug resistance mutations on clinical and immunological outcomes in HIV-infected adults on HAART in West Africa AIDS 2007.

ETV (TMC125) genotype-phenotype    View all ETV genotype-phenotype references
Vingerhoets J, Azijn H, Fransen E, De Baere I, Smeulders L, Jochmans D, Andries K, Pauwels R, de Bethune MP. TMC125 displays a high genetic barrier to the development of resistance: evidence from in vitro selection experiments Journal of Virology 2005.

ETV (TMC125) genotype-phenotype    View all ETV genotype-phenotype references
Andries K, Azijn H, Thielemans T, Ludovici D, Kukla M, Heeres J, Janssen P, De Corte B, Vingerhoets J, Pauwels R, de Bethune MP TMC125, a novel next-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor active against nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2005.

Integrase genotypes in Saudi Arabia
Badreddine S, Smith K, Van Zyl H, Bodelle P, Yamaguchi J, Swanson P, Devare SG, Brennan CA Identification and Characterization of HIV Type 1 Subtypes Present in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: High Level of Genetic Diversity Found AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007.

ETV (TMC125) genotype-phenotype    View all ETV genotype-phenotype references
Brillant JE, Klumpp K, Swallow S, Mirzadegan T, Cammack N, Heilek-Snyder G. In vitro Resistance Development for a second generation NNRTI: TMC125 XIII International HIV Drug Resistance Workshop, Tenerife 2004.

ETV (TMC125) genotype-phenotype    View all ETV genotype-phenotype references
Das K, Clark AD, Lewi PJ, Heeres J, De Jonge MR, Koymans LM, Vinkers HM, Daeyaert F, Ludovici DW, Kukla MJ, De Corte B, Kavash RW, Ho CY, Ye H, Lichtenstein MA, Andries K, Pauwels R, De Bethune MP, Boyer PL, Clark P, Hughes SH, Janssen PA, Arnold E. Roles of conformational and positional adaptability in structure-based design of TMC125-R165335 (etravirine) and related non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that are highly potent and effective against wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 variants Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2004.

Primary infection genotypes
Eshleman SH, Husnik M, Hudelson S, Donnell D, Huang Y, Huang W, Hart S, Jackson B, Coates T, Chesney M, Koblin B. Antiretroviral drug resistance, HIV-1 tropism, and HIV-1 subtype among men who have sex with men with recent HIV-1 infection AIDS 2007.

R1206 genotype-phenotype
Guoping S, Yu L, Paul A, Hang J, Harris S, Hogg H, Dunn J, Yan JM, Chow E, Cammack N, Klumpp K, Heilek G In Vitro Selection and Characterization of Viruses Resistant to R1206, a Novel Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor 16th International HIV Drug Resistance Workshop, Barbados 2007.

Genotypes in Liaoning, China.
Han X, Zhang M, Dai D, Wang Y, Zhang Z, Liu J, Geng W, Jiang Y, Takebe Y, Shang H Genotypic resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs in treatment-naive HIV/AIDS patients living in Liaoning Province, China: baseline prevalence and subtype-specific difference AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007.

Single-dose Nevirapine
Kurle SN, Gangakhedkar RR, Sen S, Hayatnagarkar SS, Tripathy SP, Paranjape RS Emergence of NNRTI Drug Resistance Mutations after Single-Dose Nevirapine Exposure in HIV Type 1 Subtype C-Infected Infants in India AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2007.

Genotype-treatment in Keyan children
Lwembe R, Ochieng W, Panikulam A, Mongoina CO, Palakudy T, Koizumi Y, Kageyama S, Yamamoto N, Shioda T, Musoke R, Owens M, Songok EM, Okoth FA, Ichimura H Anti-retroviral drug resistance-associated mutations among non-subtype B HIV-1-infected Kenyan children with treatment failure Journal of Medical Virology 2007.

BMS AI424089 Study (Atazanavir +/- Ritonavir)
McGrath D, Wirtz V, Yang R, Mathew M, Rightmire A, Schnittman S. Antiviral Efficacy and Emergent PI Substitutions in Treatment-Naive Subjects Receiving Atazanavir +/- Ritonavir-Based HAART in subtype B and Non-TYpe B HIV-1 Infection International HIV Drug Resistance Workshop, Barbados 2007.

PBMC genotyping
Vicenti I, Razzolini F, Saladini F, Romano L, Zazzi M Use of peripheral blood DNA for genotype antiretroviral resistance testing in drug-naive HIV-infected subjects Clinical Infectious Disease 2007.

ETV (TMC125) genotype-phenotype    View all ETV genotype-phenotype references
Vingerhoets J, De Baere I, Azijn H, Van den Bulcke T, McKenna P, Pattery T, Pauwels R, de Bethune MP Antiviral Activity of TMC125 against a Panel of Site-directed Mutants Encompassing Mutations Observed in vitro and in vivo 11th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, San Francisco 2004.

ETV (TMC125) genotype-phenotype    View all ETV genotype-phenotype references
Vingerhoets J, Van Marck H, Veldeman J, Peeters M, McKenna P,de Bethune MP Antiviral Activity of TMC125, a Potent Next-Generation Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI), against >5000 Recombinant Clinical Isolates Exhibiting a Wide Range of NNRTI Resistance 12th International HIV Drug Resistance Workshop 2003.

IMPACT Study (Atazanavir)
Zolopa A, Towner W, Butcher D, Wang S, Maa JF, Seekins D Resistance Profile after Viral Rebound on Atazanavir-Containing Therapy: Focus on Protease Inhibitor Naive Subjects in the IMPACT Study (BMS AI424-128) International HIV Drug Resistance Workshop, Barbados 2007.