A panel of 12 prototypical infectious multidrug resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) clones. The
panel includes clones with each of the published nucleoside analog RT inhibitor (NRTI) mutations in the combinations that
occur most frequently in HIV-infected individuals.
The related study is
Johnston E, Dupnik KM, Gonzales MJ, Winters MA, Rhee SY, Imamichi T and Shafer RW (2005), Panel of prototypical infectious molecular HIV-1 clones containing multiple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations., AIDS 19(7):731-3.
The panel was donated to the AIDS Reference Reagent Program (http://www.aidsreagent.org) in 2002.
To download nucleic acid sequence, click here.
- Abbreviations: TAMs - thymidine analog mutations; ABC - abacavir; ddI - didanosine; 3TC - lamivudine; d4T - stavudine; TDF - tenofovir; AZT - zidovudine
- p24 - logarithm of the p24 antigen concentration (ng/ml) of the initial virus stock.
- Fold resistance (reduction in drug susceptibility) as determined by the Monogram PhenoSenseTM assay.
- Although susceptibilities to emtricitabine (FTC)--the most recently approved nucleoside RT inhibitor--were not determined, its resistance profile is considered identical to that of 3TC.
- Results in the orange color are above the PhenoSense assay clinical cut-off. ">>" indicates that the fold resistance was above the upper limit of assay detection, which is 300-fold for 3TC and ~1,000 fold for AZT.
- Nonnucleoside RT inhibitor resistance mutations at position 103 (K103N) were present in clones 2, and 10, and at position 190 (G190C and G190A) in clones 7 and 11.
- The "ins" at position 69 for clone 7 indicates the presence of a double amino acid (SS) insertion following a T69S substitution at position 69.