Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database - A curated public database designed to represent, store, and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying HIV drug resistance.

RAL Resistant HIV-1 Integrase Panel

A panel of 5 prototypical infectious RAL resistant HIV-1 integrase clones. The panel includes clones with RAL mutations in the combinations that occur most frequently in HIV-infected individuals.

The related study is

Reuman EC, Rhee SY, Holmes SP, Shafer RW (2010), Constrained patterns of covariation and clustering of HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations. Journal of Antinicrobial Chemotherapy, 2010 May 12

The panel was donated to the AIDS Reference Reagent Program ( in 2010.
To download nucleic acid sequence, click here.

Clone Name GenBank NIH Cat No (Virus Isolates) Integrase Mutations Fold Resistance Replication Characteristics
Major DRMs Minor DRMs Other RAL RC
4736_2 GU076504 11843 N155H T97A D6E, S17N, R20K, D25E, S39C, L45V,L101I, V201I, S119R, T124A, K160T, K211R, D288N 116 NA 1.6 3.2
4736_4 GU076505 11842 E92Q, N155H None D6E, S17N, R20K, D25E, S39C, L45V,L101I, T124A, K160T, V201I, K211R, D288N 96 58 1.4 2.8
1556_1 GU076508 11844 Y143C L74M, T97A, S230R K7R, S17N, R20K, L101I, K111Q, T112K, S119R, T206S, D256E, V259I >200 88 2.4 4
8070_1 GU076510 11846 G140S, Y143H, Q148H None K14R, L101I, T112A, G193E, D229E, D279G >200 NA 1.9 3.7
8070_2 GU076511 11845 G140S, Q148H None K14R, L63I, L101I, T112A, G193E, V021I, D229E, D279G >200 NA 2.0 3.5

  1. Abbreviations: RAL - raltegravir; DRMs - drug resistance mutations
  2. Fold resistance (reduction in drug susceptibility) as determined by the Monogram PhenoSenseTM assay.
  3. ">" indicates that the fold resistance was above the upper limit of assay detection.
  4. RC: RCTM - Virus replication capacity (%).
  5. p24: logarithm of the p24 antigen concentration (ng/ml) of the initial virus stock.
  6. MT2: logarithm of the 50% tissue culture infective dose (IU/ml) in MT2 cells.