A panel of 12 prototypical infectious multidrug resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) clones. The
panel includes clones with each of the published nucleoside analog RT inhibitor (NRTI) mutations in the combinations that
occur most frequently in HIV-infected individuals.
The related study is
Panel of prototypical infectious molecular HIV-1 clones containing multiple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations.,
Johnston et al. AIDS, and can be found in the Publication page.
The panel was donated to the AIDS Reference Reagent Program (http://www.aidsreagent.org) in May of 2002.
To download nucleic acid sequence, click here.
- Abbreviations: TAMs - thymidine analog mutations; ABC - abacavir; ddI - didanosine; 3TC - lamivudine; d4T - stavudine; TDF - tenofovir; AZT - zidovudine
- p24 - logarithm of the p24 antigen concentration (pg/ml) of the initial virus stock.
- Fold resistance as determined by the ViroLogic PhenoSenseTM Assay.
- Zalcitibine (ddC) results are not shown because this drug is rarely used and its resistance profile is similar to ddI. Although susceptibilities to emtricitabine (FTC)--the most recently approved nucleoside RT inhibitor--were not determined, its resistance profile is considered identical to that of 3TC.
- Results in the orange color are above the PhenoSense assay clinical cut-off. >> indicates that the fold resistance (reduction in drug susceptibility) was greater than the upper limit of assay detection, which is 300-fold for 3TC and ~1,000 fold for AZT.
- Nonnucleoside RT inhibitor resistance mutations at position 103 (K103N) were present in clones 2, and 10, and at position 190 (G190C and G190A) in clones 7 and 11.
- The "ins" at position 69 for clone 7 indicates the presence of a double amino acid (SS) insertion following a T69S substitution at position 69.