Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database - A curated public database designed to represent, store, and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying HIV drug resistance.

Multi-Drug Resistant HIV-1 RT Panel

A panel of 12 prototypical infectious multidrug resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) clones. The panel includes clones with each of the published nucleoside analog RT inhibitor (NRTI) mutations in the combinations that occur most frequently in HIV-infected individuals. The related study is Panel of prototypical infectious molecular HIV-1 clones containing multiple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations., Johnston et al. AIDS, and can be found in the Publication page.

The panel was donated to the AIDS Reference Reagent Program (http://www.aidsreagent.org) in May of 2002.
To download nucleic acid sequence, click here.



Clone GenBank NIH p24 TAM 184 69 65 151 Pathway 74 115 44 118 Fold Decreased Susceptibility
41 67 70 210 215 219 75 77 116 151 AZT d4T TDF ABC ddI 3TC
1 AY351774 6463-13 5.2 L N   W Y   V                   I 24 4.1 1.5 7.4 2.1 >>
2 AY351750 7303-3 5.4 L N   W Y     D               D I >> 6.7 5.9 8.4 2.3 7.5
3 AY351769 4755-5 5.5 L N   W Y   V D               D I 61 3.9 2.3 7.7 2.4 >>
4 AY351719 7324-4 4.8   N R   F E                       464 2.3 5.2 3.8 1.5 3.6
5 AY351744 7295-1 5.1   N R   F Q V N                   9.9 1.9 1.1 6.1 1.9 >>
6 AY351717 7324-1 4.6 L N R   F E   N                   923 2.6 8.1 4.2 1.7 4.1
7 AY351729 52534-2 5.7 L     W Y   V ins           V       719 9 4.2 22 3.3 >>
8 AY351767 1617-1 5.5     G       V K   I L Y M   Y     261 11 2.4 >> 23 >>
9 AY351770 35764-2 6.2                   I L Y M         55 11 1.9 7.1 11 5.4
10 AY351736 56252-1 4.5     R           R I L Y M         >> 20 11 >> 28 89
11 AY829262 71361-1 5.4                 R                 0.7 1.9 3.8 3.6 3 10
12 AY829263 8415-2 5.3             V   R                 0.3 1.2 1.1 9.1 3 >>


Footnotes:
  1. Abbreviations: TAMs - thymidine analog mutations; ABC - abacavir; ddI - didanosine; 3TC - lamivudine; d4T - stavudine; TDF - tenofovir; AZT - zidovudine
  2. p24 - logarithm of the p24 antigen concentration (pg/ml) of the initial virus stock.
  3. Fold resistance as determined by the ViroLogic PhenoSenseTM Assay.
  4. Zalcitibine (ddC) results are not shown because this drug is rarely used and its resistance profile is similar to ddI. Although susceptibilities to emtricitabine (FTC)--the most recently approved nucleoside RT inhibitor--were not determined, its resistance profile is considered identical to that of 3TC.
  5. Results in the orange color are above the PhenoSense assay clinical cut-off. >> indicates that the fold resistance (reduction in drug susceptibility) was greater than the upper limit of assay detection, which is 300-fold for 3TC and ~1,000 fold for AZT.
  6. Nonnucleoside RT inhibitor resistance mutations at position 103 (K103N) were present in clones 2, and 10, and at position 190 (G190C and G190A) in clones 7 and 11.
  7. The "ins" at position 69 for clone 7 indicates the presence of a double amino acid (SS) insertion following a T69S substitution at position 69.