<!--#if expr="$title" --> <!--#echo var="title" --> <!--#else --> HIV Drug Resistance Database <!--#endif -->
Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database - A curated public database designed to represent, store, and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying HIV drug resistance.

References

Select an author to see all studies by that author in the HIV Drug Resistance Database. The table contains the alphabetical list of all studies by first author. For each entry, the link on the left is to the Medline abstract; the link on right is to the study dataset.
 

First Author (yr)TitleCitationData
Abecasis (2007) Recombination confounds the early evolutionary history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: subtype G is a circulating recombinant form. J Virol
Abram (2013) Effect of primary elvitegravir resistance mutations in HIV-1 integrase on drug susceptibility and viral replication fitness. AAC
Adojaan (2005) Predominance of a rare type of HIV-1 in Estonia. JAIDS
Afonso (2012) HIV-1 genetic diversity and transmitted drug resistance mutations among patients from the North, Central and South regions of Angola. PLoS ONE
Aghokeng (2007) Full-length sequence analysis of SIVmus in wild populations of mustached monkeys (Cercopithecus cephus) from Cameroon provides evidence for two co-circulating SIVmus lineages. Virology
Aghokeng (2009) Evaluation of transmitted HIV drug resistance among recently-infected antenatal clinic attendees in four Central African countries. Antivir Ther
Aghokeng (2011) High failure rate of the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system for drug resistance testing in Cameroon, a country with broad HIV-1 genetic diversity J Clin Microbiol
Aghokeng (2011) Scale-up of antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa is accompanied by increasing HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in drug-naive patients. AIDS
Aghokeng (2013) Virological outcome and patterns of HIV-1 drug resistance in patients with 36 months' antiretroviral therapy experience in Cameroon. J Int AIDS Soc
Agwale (2006) Genotypic and phenotypic analyses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in antiretroviral drug-naive Nigerian patients. ARHR
Ahuka-Mundeke (2010) Full-length genome sequence of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infecting a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) is closely related to SIVrcm infecting wild red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Cameroon. J Gen Virol
Ait-Khaled (2002) Mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase during therapy with abacavir, lamivudine, zidovudine in HIV-1 infected adults with no prior antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther
Ajoge (2012) Drug resistance pattern of HIV type 1 isolates sampled in 2007 from therapy-naive pregnant women in north-central Nigeria. ARHR
Akrim (2012) HIV-1 subtype distribution in Morocco based on national sentinel surveillance data 2004-2005. AIDS Res Ther
Albert (1994) Analysis of a rape case by direct sequencing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pol and gag genes. J Virol
Albrecht (2000) Effect of lamivudine in HIV-infected persons with prior exposure to zidovudine/didanosine or zidovudine/zalcitabine. ARHR
Albrecht (2001) Nelfinavir, efavirenz, or both after the failure of nucleoside treatment of HIV infection.AIDS Clinical Trials Group 364 Study Team. N Engl J Med
Alcantara (2013) Increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 subtype C in inland central western Brazil. J Med Virol
Alencar (2013) HIV genotypes and primary drug resistance among HIV seropositive blood donors in Brazil: Role of infected blood donors as sentinel populations for molecular surveillance of HIV. JAIDS
Alizon (1986) Genetic variability of the AIDS virus: nucleotide sequence analysis of two isolates from African patients. Cell
An (2012) Reconstituting the epidemic history of HIV strain CRF01_AE among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Liaoning, northeastern China: Implications for the expanding epidemic among MSM in China J Virol
Anderson (2000) Testing the hypothesis of a recombinant origin of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype E. J Virol
Andersson (1999) Molecular characterization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and -2 in individuals from Guinea-Bissau with single or dual infections: predominance of a distinct HIV-1 subtype A/G recombinant in west Africa. Virology
Andresen (2007) Characterization of near full-length genomes of HIV type 1 strains in Denmark: Basis for a universal therapeutic vaccine. ARHR
Andries (2004) TMC125, a novel next-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor active against nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1. AAC
Antoniadou (2013) Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 infection in northern Greece (2009-2010): evidence of a transmission cluster of HIV type 1 subtype A1 drug-resistant strains among men who have sex with men. ARHR
Apetrei (1998) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype F reverse transcriptase sequence and drug susceptibility. J Virol
Apetrei (2003) HIV type 1 diversity in northeastern Romania in 2000-2001 based on phylogenetic analysis of pol sequences from patients failing antiretroviral therapy. ARHR
Apetrei (2005) Molecular epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm in U.S. primate centers unravels the origin of SIVmac and SIVstm. J Virol
Arien (2005) Replicative fitness of historical and recent HIV-1 isolates suggests HIV-1 attenuation over time. AIDS
Ariyoshi (2003) Patterns of point mutations associated with antiretroviral drug treatment failure in CRF01_AE (subtype E) infection differ from subtype B infection. JAIDS
Armenia (2012) Study of genotypic and phenotypic HIV-1 dynamics of integrase mutations during raltegravir treatment: A refined analysis by ultra-deep 454 pyrosequencing. J Infect Dis
Arora (2008) Drug resistance-associated genotypic alterations in the pol gene of HIV type 1 isolates in ART-naive individuals in North India. ARHR
Arroyo (2004) HIV type 1 subtypes among blood donors in the Mbeya region of southwest Tanzania. ARHR
Arroyo (2005) HIV-1 diversity and prevalence differ between urban and rural areas in the Mbeya region of Tanzania. AIDS
Arruda (2010) Intermediate prevalence of HIV type 1 primary antiretroviral resistance in Ceara State, Northeast Brazil. ARHR
Arruda (2010) Genetic diversity on the integrase region of the pol gene among HIV type 1-infected patients naive for integrase inhibitors in Sao Paulo City, Brazil. ARHR
Atkinson (2000) Correlation between human immunodeficiency virus genotypic resistance and virologic response in patients receiving nelfinavir monotherapy or nelfinavir with lamivudine and zidovudine. J Infect Dis
Aulicino (2005) Sequence analysis of a south American HIV type 1 BC recombinant. ARHR
Aulicino (2005) Circulation of novel HIV type 1 A, B/C, and F subtypes in Argentina. ARHR
Aulicino (2011) Longitudinal analysis of HIV-1 BF1 recombinant strains in vertically infected children from Argentina reveals a decrease in CRF12_BF pol gene mosaic patterns and high diversity of BF unique recombinant forms. Infect Genet Evol
Auwanit (2009) Detection of drug resistance-associated and background mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF01_AE protease and reverse transcriptase derived from drug treatment-naive patients residing in central Thailand. ARHR
Avi (2009) Absence of genotypic drug resistance and presence of several naturally occurring polymorphisms of human immunodeficiency virus-1 CRF06_cpx in treatment-naive patients in Estonia. J Med Virol
Avi (2010) Characterization of integrase region polymorphisms in HIV type 1 CRF06_cpx viruses in treatment-naive patients in Estonia. ARHR
Avi (2011) Emerging transmitted drug resistance in treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus-1 CRF06_cpx-infected patients in Estonia. Scand J Infect Dis
Avi (2013) Transmitted drug resistance is still low in newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF06_cpx-infected patients in Estonia in 2010. ARHR
Avila-Rios (2012) National prevalence and trends of HIV transmitted drug resistance in Mexico PLoS ONE
Ayouba (2009) Low prevalence of HIV type 1 drug resistance mutations in untreated, recently infected patients from Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Senegal, Thailand, and Vietnam: The ANRS 12134 study. ARHR
Azijn (2010) TMC278, a next-generation NNRTI, active against wild-type and NNRTI-resistant HIV-1. AAC
Babic (2006) Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations and HIV-1 non-B subtypes in newly diagnosed drug-naive patients in Slovenia, 2000-2004. Virus Res
Bacheler (2000) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutations selected in patients failing efavirenz combination therapy. AAC
Bacheler (2001) Genotypic correlates of phenotypic resistance to efavirenz in virus isolates from patients failing nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy. J Virol
Badreddine (2007) Identification and characterization of HIV type 1 subtypes present in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: High level of genetic diversity found. ARHR
Baier (1990) Complete nucleotide sequence of a simian immunodeficiency virus from African green monkeys: A novel type of intragroup divergence. Virology
Baker (2007) HIV subtypes distribution and implication for antiretroviral treatment in a Ugandan population. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic)
Balakrishnan (2005) HIV type 1 genotypic variation in an antiretroviral treatment-naive population in southern India. ARHR
Balamane (2012) Panel of prototypical recombinant infectious molecular clones resistant to nevirapine, efavirenz, etravirine, and rilpivirine. AAC
Baldanti (2009) Early emergence of raltegravir resistance mutations in patients receiving HAART salvage regimens. J Med Virol
Baldrich-Rubio (2001) A complex human immunodeficiency virus type 1 A/G/J recombinant virus isolated from a seronegative patient with AIDS from Benin, West Africa. J Gen Virol
Balode (2010) Low prevalence of transmitted drug resistance among newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Latvia. J Med Virol
Balotta (2000) Prevalence of multiple dideoxynucleoside analogue resistance (MddNR) in a multicenter cohort of HIV-1 infected Italian patients with virologic failure. JAIDS
Balotta (2000) Prevalence of transmitted nucleoside analogue-resistant HIV-1 strains and pre-existing mutations in pol reverse transcriptase and protease region, outcome after treatment in recently infected individuals. Antivir Ther
Balotta (2001) Increasing prevalence of non-clade B HIV-1 strains heterosexuals, as monitored by the analysis of the RT and protease sequences. JAIDS
Bang (2008) Prevalence of primary antiretroviral resistance: Trends in Korea. ARHR
Bao (2008) Molecular tracing of sexual HIV Type 1 transmission in the southwest border of China. ARHR
Barber (2012) Frequency and patterns of protease gene resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir as their first protease inhibitor. J Antimicrob Chemother
Barditch-Crovo (2001) Phase I/II trial of the pharmacokinetics, safety, and antiretroviral activity of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. AAC
Barlow (2003) Characterization of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus(SIVmonNG1) genome sequence from a mona monkey(cercopithecus mona). J Virol
Barnett (1993) Distinguishing features of an infectious molecular clone of the highly divergent and noncytopathic human immunodeficiency virus type 2 UC1 strain. J Virol
Barreto (2006) Trends in antiretroviral drug resistance and clade distributions among HIV-1--infected blood donors in Sao Paulo, Brazil. JAIDS
Bartolo (2009) HIV-1 genetic diversity and transmitted drug resistance in health care settings in Maputo, Mozambique. JAIDS
Bartolo (2009) Antiretroviral drug resistance surveillance among treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals in Angola: evidence for low level of transmitted drug resistance. AAC
Bartolo (2011) Origin and epidemiological history of HIV-1 CRF14_BG. PLoS One
Bartolo (2014) HIV-1 diversity, transmission dynamics and primary drug resistance in Angola. Direct Genbank Submission
Baryshev (2013) HIV-1 genetic diversity in Russia: CRF63_02A1, a new HIV type 1 genetic variant spreading in Siberia. ARHR
Baxter (2000) A randomized study of antiretroviral management based on plasma genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing in patients failing therapy. CPCRA 046 study team for the Terry Beirn community programs for clinical research on AIDS. AIDS
Baxter (2006) Genotypic changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease associated with reduced susceptibility and virologic response to the protease inhibitor tipranavir. J Virol
Becker-Pergola (2000) Analysis of HIV type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase in antiretroviral drug naive Ugandan adults. ARHR
Beer (1999) Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from sun-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus solatus): Evidence for host-dependent evolution of SIV within the C.lhoesti superspecies. J Virol
Beer (2000) Patterns of genomic sequence diversity among their simian immunodeficiency viruses suggest that L'Hoest monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti) are a natural lentivirus reservoir. J Virol
Beer (2001) Characterization of novel simian immunodeficiency viruses from red-capped mangabeys from Nigeria. J Virol
Belec (2000) High levels of drug resistance human immunodeficiency virus variants in patients exhibiting increasing CD4 + t cell counts despite virologic failure of protease inhibitors containing antiretroviral combination therapy. J Infect Dis
Bellocchi (2005) Subtype analysis and mutations to antiviral drugs in HIV-1-infected patients from Mozambique before initiation of antiretroviral therapy: Results from the DREAM programme. J Med Virol
Bellosillo (2003) G190A substitution is associated with delavirdine(DLV) hypersusceptibility in vitro and clinical response with DLV intensification. Antivir Ther
Bernardin (2005) Human immunodeficiency virus mutations during the first month of infection are preferentially found in known cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes. J Virol
Bessong (2005) Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from a previously unexplored region of South Africa with a high HIV prevalence. ARHR
Bessong (2006) Resistance mutational analysis of HIV type 1 subtype C among rural South African drug-naive patients prior to large-scale availability of antiretrovirals. ARHR
Bessong (2013) Genetic analysis of HIV-1 integrase sequences from treatment naive individuals in northeastern South Africa. Int J Mol Sci
Bibollet-Ruche (2004) Complete genome analysis of one of the earliest SIVcpzPtt strains from Gabon (SIVcpzGAB2). ARHR
Bibollet-Ruche (2004) New simian immunodeficiency virus infecting De Brazza's monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus): Evidence for a cercopithecus monkey virus clade. J Virol
Bila (2013) Evolution of primary HIV drug resistance in a subtype C dominated epidemic in Mozambique. PLoS ONE
Billong (2013) Population-based monitoring of emerging HIV-1 drug resistance on antiretroviral therapy and associated factors in a sentinel site in Cameroon: low levels of resistance but poor programmatic performance. PLoS ONE
Blanco (2011) HIV-1 integrase inhibitor resistance and its clinical implications. J Infect Dis
Bodelle (2004) Identification and genomic sequence of an HIV type 1 group N isolate from Cameroon. ARHR
Bonhoeffer (2004) Evidence for positive epistasis in HIV-1. Science
Bontell (2011) Transmitted drug resistance and phylogenetic analysis of HIV CRF01_AE in northern Vietnam. Infect Genet Evol
Bonura (2010) Transmission of drug-resistant HIV type 1 strains in HAART-naive patients: A 5-year retrospective study in Sicily, Italy. ARHR
Bouchard (2007) HIV type 1 drug resistance among naive patients from Venezuela. ARHR
Bouzeghoub (2006) High diversity of HIV type 1 in Algeria. ARHR
Bradshaw (2007) Characterization of a novel drug-resistance pattern associated with the mutations K70G and M184V in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. AAC
Brandin (2003) Pol gene sequence variation in Swedish HIV-2 patients failing antiretroviral therapy. ARHR
Brehm (2011) Failure of initial therapy with two nucleosides and efavirenz is not associated with early emergence of mutations in the C-terminus of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. JAIDS
Brehm (2012) Frequent emergence of N348I in HIV-1 subtype C reverse transcriptase with failure of initial therapy reduces susceptibility to reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. Clin Infect Dis
Brennan (2000) Genetic variation in human immunodeficiency virus type 2: Identification of a unique variant from human plasma. ARHR
Brennan (2007) HIV-1 strains identified in Brazilian blood donors: Significant prevalence of B/F1 recombinants. ARHR
Brennan (2008) The prevalence of diverse HIV-1 strains was stable in Cameroonian blood donors from 1996 to 2004. JAIDS
Brennan (2009) Identification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 non-B subtypes and antiretroviral drug-resistant strains in United States blood donors. Transfusion
Brennan (2010) Expanded evaluation of blood donors in the United States for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 non-B subtypes and antiretroviral drug-resistant strains: 2005 through 2007. Transfusion
Brenner (2011) Subtype diversity associated with the development of HIV-1 resistance to integrase inhibitors. J Med Virol
Brigido (2007) HIV type 1 subtype C and CB Pol recombinants prevail at the cities with the highest AIDS prevalence rate in Brazil. ARHR
Brindeiro (2002) Testing genotypic and phenotypic resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates of clade B and other clades from children failing antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Microbiol
Brindeiro (1999) Sequence diversity of the reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from untreated Brazilian individuals. AAC
Brindeiro (2003) Brazilian network for HIV drug resistance surveillance (HIV-BResNet): A survey of chronically infected individuals. AIDS
Brockman (2012) Uncommon pathways of immune escape attenuate HIV-1 integrase replication capacity. J Virol
Brooks (2013) Local phylogenetic analysis identifies distinct trends in transmitted HIV drug resistance: implications for public health interventions. BMC Infect Dis
Brown (2009) Phylogenetic reconstruction of transmission events from individuals with acute HIV infection J Infect Dis
Brown (2000) Reduced susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from patients with primary HIV infection to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is associated with variation at novel amino acid sites. J Virol
Brown (2005) Biologic and genetic characterization of a panel of 60 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates, representing clades A, B, C, D, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG, for the development and assessment of candidate vaccines. J Virol
Brumme (2007) Evidence of differential HLA class I-mediated viral evolution in functional and accessory/regulatory genes of HIV-1. PLoS Pathog
Brumme (2009) HLA-associated immune escape pathways in HIV-1 subtype B gag, pol and nef proteins. PLoS Med
Brun (2001) Patterns of protease inhibitor cross resistance in viral isolates with reduced susceptibility to lopinavir. CROI 2001
Bunupuradah (2011) Etravirine and rilpivirine resistance in HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE-infected adults failing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens. Antivir Ther
Burda (2010) HIV-1 reverse transcriptase drug-resistance mutations in chronically infected individuals receiving or naive to HAART in Cameroon. J Med Virol
Burns (2002) Sequence variability of the integrase protein from a diverse collection of HIV type 1 isolates representing several subtypes. ARHR
Bussmann (2005) HIV-1 subtype C drug-resistance background among ARV-naive adults in Botswana. Antivir Chem Chemother
Bussmann (2011) Prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Botswana: Lessons learned from the HIVDR-threshold survey conducted among women presenting for routine antenatal care as part of the 2007 national sentinel survey. ARHR
Buzon (2008) Raltegravir susceptibility and fitness progression of HIV type-1 integrase in patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther
Byrnes (1993) Comprehensive mutant enzyme and viral variant assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase resistance to nonnucleoside inhibitors. AAC
Cabana (1999) Emergence and genetic evolution of HIV-1 variants with mutations conferring resistance to multiple reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors. J Med Virol
Canducci (2009) Dynamic patterns of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir-based salvage therapies. AIDS
Canducci (2011) Cross-resistance profile of the novel integrase inhibitor Dolutegravir (S/GSK1349572) using clonal viral variants selected in patients failing raltegravir. J Infect Dis
Capel (2013) Significant changes in integrase-associated HIV-1 replication capacity between early and late isolates. Virology
Cardoso (2009) HIV-1 pol phylogenetic diversity and antiretroviral resistance mutations in treatment naive patients from central west Brazil. J Clin Virol
Cardoso (2009) High level of multidrug resistance mutations in HIV type 1 pol gene and resistance-associated mutations to enfuvirtide (T-20) among antiretroviral-experienced patients from central Brazil. ARHR
Caride (2001) Genotypic and phenotypic evidence of different drug-resistance mutation patterns between B and non-B subtype isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 found in Brazilian patients failing HAART. Virus Genes
Caron (2008) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroprevalence and antiretroviral drug resistance-associated mutations in miners in Gabon, central Africa. ARHR
Caron (2012) Prevalence, genetic diversity and antiretroviral drugs resistance-associated mutations among untreated HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa. BMC Infect Dis
Carr (1996) Full-length sequence and mosaic structure of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate from Thailand. J Virol
Carr (1998) Full genome sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes G and A/G intersubtype recombinants. Virology
Carr (1999) Direct Genbank submission: HIV-1 isolates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and from Gabon. Direct Genbank Submission
Carr (1999) Characterization of subtype A HIV-1 from Africa by full genome sequencing. AIDS
Carr (2001) The AG recombinant IbNG and novel strains of group M HIV-1 are common in Cameroon. Virology
Carr (2001) Diverse BF recombinants have spread widely since the introduction of HIV-1 into South America. AIDS
Carr (2005) HIV subtype and drug resistance patterns among drug-naive infected persons in Jos, Nigeria. Direct Genbank Submission
Carr (2005) Outbreak of west African recombinant of HIV-1 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. JAIDS
Carr (2006) High genetic complexity of HIV-1 in low-prevalence, rural regions of Cameroon. Direct Genbank Submission
Carr (2010) HIV-1 recombinants with multiple parental strains in low-prevalence, remote regions of Cameroon: Evolutionary relics?. Retrovirology
Carrillo (1998) In vitro selection and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants with increased resistance to ABT-378. J Virol
Carrion (2003) Circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG in south America. ARHR
Carrion (2004) Documentation of subtype C HIV Type 1 strains in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. ARHR
Carvalho (2011) Moderate prevalence of transmitted drug resistance and interiorization of HIV type 1 subtype C in the inland north state of Tocantins, Brazil. ARHR
Casado (2003) Near full-length genome characterization of an HIV type 1 CRF05_DF virus from Spain. ARHR
Casado (2005) Identification of a novel HIV-1 circulating ADG intersubtype recombinant form (CRF19_cpx) in Cuba. JAIDS
Castelbranco (2010) Frequency of primary resistance to antiretroviral drugs and genetic variability of HIV-1 among infected pregnant women recently diagnosed in Luanda-Angola. ARHR
Castillo (2009) Surveillance of HIV type 1 drug resistance among naive patients from Venezuela. ARHR
Castro (2010) HIV-1 drug resistance transmission networks in southwest Switzerland. ARHR
Caumont (2001) Sequence analysis of env C2/V3, gag p17/p24, and pol protease regions of 25 HIV type 1 isolates from Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. ARHR
Chaix (2003) Stable prevalence of genotypic drug resistance mutations but increase in non-B virus among patients with primary HIV-1 infection in France. AIDS
Chamberland (2012) Transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance in Benin could jeopardise future treatment options. Sex Transm Infect
Chang (2008) Trends of antiretroviral drug resistance in treatment-naive patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in Taiwan. J Antimicrob Chemother
Charpentier (2008) Drug resistance profiles for the HIV integrase gene in patients failing raltegravir salvage therapy. HIV Med
Charpentier (2011) High prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-1-untreated patients in Guinea-Conakry and in Niger. Antivir Ther
Charpentier (2011) Virological response and resistance profiles after 18 to 30 months of first- or second-/third-line antiretroviral treatment: A cross-sectional evaluation in HIV type 1-infected children living in the Central African Republic. ARHR
Charpentier (2011) Virological failure and HIV type 1 drug resistance profiles among patients followed-up in private sector, Douala, Cameroon. ARHR
Chaturbhuj (2010) Transmitted HIV drug resistance among HIV-infected voluntary counseling and testing centers (VCTC) clients in Mumbai, India. ARHR
Chen (2012) Genetic diversity and drug resistance among newly diagnosed and antiretroviral treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in western Yunnan: A hot area of viral recombination in China BMC Infect Dis
Chen (2013) HIV-1 genotypes and drug resistance threshold survey in Honghe Prefecture of Yunnan Province in 2011 Direct Genbank Submission
Chen (1996) Genetic characterization of new west African simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm: Geographic clustering of household-derived SIV strains with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtypes and genetically diverse viruses from a single feral sooty mangabey troop. J Virol
Chibo (2011) HIV transmissions during seroconversion contribute significantly to new infections in men who have sex with men in Australia. ARHR
Chikata (2014) Host-specific adaptation of HIV-1 subtype B in the Japanese population. J Virol
Chin (2006) Inverse relationship between viral load and genotypic resistance mutations in Korean patients with primary HIV type 1 infections. ARHR
Chin (2010) Comparison of genotypic resistance mutations in treatment-naive HIV type 1-infected patients in Korea and China. ARHR
Cho (2002) Frequency of mutations conferring resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients in Korea. J Clin Microbiol
Chow (2012) Genome sequences of a novel HIV-1 CRF53_01B identified in Malaysia J Virol
Chow (2013) Molecular diversity of HIV-1 among people who inject drugs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: massive expansion of circulating recombinant form (CRF) 33_01B and emergence of multiple unique recombinant clusters. PLoS ONE
Church (2007) HIV type 1 variants with nevirapine resistance mutations are rarely detected in antiretroviral drug-naive African women with subtypes A, C, and D. ARHR
Church (2008) Analysis of nevirapine (NVP) resistance in Ugandan infants who were HIV infected despite receiving single-dose (SD) NVP versus SD NVP plus daily NVP up to 6 weeks of age to prevent HIV vertical transmission. J Infect Dis
Ciccozzi (2005) Molecular diversity of HIV in Albania. J Infect Dis
Cinque (2001) Effect of genotypic resistance on the virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in cerebrospinal fluid. ARHR
Clavel (1986) Isolation of a new human retrovirus from west African patients with AIDS. Science
Clevenbergh (2002) Long-term virological outcome in patients infected with multi-nucleoside analogue-resistant HIV-1. Antivir Ther
Clewley (1998) A novel simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVdrl) pol sequence from the drill monkey, Mandrillus leucophaeus. J Virol
Coakley (2005) Atazanavir resistance in a protease inhibitor-naive patient treated with atazanavir/ritonavir associated with development of high-level atazanavir resistance and the N88S mutation in protease. CROI 2007
Coakley (2000) Phenotypic and genotypic resistance patterns of HIV-1 isolates derived from individuals treated with didanosine and stavudine. AIDS
Coetzer (2013) Extensive drug resistance in HIV-infected Cambodian children who are undetected as failing first-Line antiretroviral therapy by WHO 2010 guidelines. ARHR
Colonno (2004) Identification of I50L as the signature atazanavir (ATV)-resistance mutation in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients receiving ATV-containing regimens. J Infect Dis
Condra (1995) In vivo emergence of HIV-1 variants resistant to multiple protease inhibitors. Nature
Condra (1996) Genetic correlates of in vivo viral resistance to indinavir, a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor. J Virol
Corbet (2000) Env sequences of SIV from chimpanzees in Cameroon are strongly related to HIV group N from the same geographic area. J Virol
Cornelissen (1997) Pol diversity of five HIV-1 subtypes: Evidence for naturally occurring mutations that contribute to drug resistance, limited recombination patterns, and common ancestry for subtypes B and D. J Virol
Cornelissen (2000) Spread of distinct human immunodeficiency virus type 1 AG recombinant lineages in Africa. J Gen Virol
Courgnaud (1992) Genetic differences accounting for evolution and pathogenicity of simian immunodeficiency virus from a sooty mangabey monkey after cross-species transmission to a pig-tailed macaque. J Virol
Courgnaud (2001) Characterization of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus from guereza colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) in Cameroon: A new lineage in the nonhuman primate lentivirus family. J Virol
Courgnaud (2002) Characterization of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus with a vpu gene from greater spot-nosed monkeys (Cercopithecus nictitans) provides new insights into simian/human immunodeficiency virus phylogeny. J Virol
Courgnaud (2003) Partial molecular characterization of two simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) from African colobids: SIVwrc from western red colobus (Piliocolobus badius) and SIVolc from olive colobus (Procolobus verus). J Virol
Courgnaud (2003) Identification of a new simian immunodeficiency virus lineage with a vpu gene present among different cercopithecus monkeys (C. mona, C. cephus, and C. nictitans) from Cameroon. J Virol
Couto-Fernandez (2006) Phylogenetic analysis of Brazilian HIV type 1 subtype D strains: Tracing the origin of this subtype in Brazil. ARHR
Craig (1998) HIV protease genotype and viral sensitivity to HIV protease inhibitors following saquinavir therapy. AIDS
Cuevas (2009) Incidence of non-B subtypes of HIV-1 in Galicia, Spain: High frequency and diversity of HIV-1 among men who have sex with men. Euro Surveill
Cuevas (2002) High HIV-1 genetic diversity in Cuba. AIDS
Cuevas (2009) HIV-1 transmission cluster with T215D revertant mutation among newly diagnosed patients from the Basque Country, Spain. JAIDS
da Silva (2010) HIV-1 resistance patterns to integrase inhibitors in antiretroviral-experienced patients with virological failure on raltegravir-containing regimens. J Antimicrob Chemother
da Silveira (2012) HIV type 1 molecular epidemiology in pol and gp41 genes among naive patients from Mato Grosso do Sul State, central western Brazil. ARHR
Dagnra (2011) High prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance among patients on first-line antiretroviral treatment in Lome, Togo. J Int AIDS Soc
Dalai (2009) Evolution and molecular epidemiology of subtype C HIV-1 in Zimbabwe. AIDS
Damond (2004) Identification of a highly divergent HIV type 2 and proposal for a change in HIV type 2 classification. ARHR
Das (2004) Roles of conformational and positional adaptability in structure-based design of TMC125-R165335 (etravirine) and related non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that are highly potent and effective against wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 variants. J Med Chem
Das (2008) High-resolution structures of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase/TMC278 complexes: Strategic flexibility explains potency against resistance mutations. PNAS
Dau (2010) Connection domain mutations in treatment-experienced patients in the OPTIMA trial. JAIDS
Dauber (2002) Altered substrate specificity of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. J Virol
Dazza (2005) Characterization of a novel vpu-harboring simian immunodeficiency virus from a Dent's mona monkey (Cercopithecus mona denti). J Virol
de Baar (2000) Natural residues versus antiretroviral drug-selected mutations in HIV type 1 group O reverse transcriptase and protease related to virological drug failure in vivo. ARHR
De Gascun (2012) Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Ireland: Phylogenetic Evidence for Risk Group-Specific Subepidemics. ARHR
de Medeiros (2011) Co-circulation HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and CRF31_BC in a drug-naive population from Southernmost Brazil: Analysis of primary resistance mutations. J Med Virol
De Meyer (2009) Characterization of virologic failure patients on darunavir/ritonavir in treatment-experienced patients. AIDS
de Sa Filho (2002) Mutations associated with drug resistance in a population of drug naive HIV-1 infected individuals. Direct Genbank Submission
de Sa Filho (2003) Analysis of the protease sequences of HIV-1 infected individuals after indinavir monotherapy. J Clin Virol
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