<!--#if expr="$title" --> <!--#echo var="title" --> <!--#else --> HIV Drug Resistance Database <!--#endif -->
Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database - A curated public database designed to represent, store, and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying HIV drug resistance.

Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

Subtype C
Gene RT
Mutation K238R
Rx >= 1 NNRTI
(+/- NRTI)
IncludeMixtures No
References 19
Patients 53
Isolates 54
 
Show mutation frequency as:
Exclude mutations:

Sequences matching input query are shown below. Original reference, patient identifier, isolate name, partial treatment histories and accession number are indicated. Complete treatment histories, when available, can be accessed by clicking the isolate name. Sequences may additionally be downloaded in the fasta format, or viewed as individual or composite alignments using the options above. If the user wishes to view individual alignments of isolates for which there are multiple clones, the user can choose to view either an alignment of consensus sequences derived from the clones or an alignment of each clone as well as a consensus sequence.

Author (yr) Patient Isolate Acc# NRTIs NNRTIsNRTIDRMs NNRTIDRMs OtherMutSubtype
Johnston (2003)TC-57TC-57 3TC, D4TNVP  V35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, K122E, S163T, T165I, K173T, Q174QK, D177E, T200A, I202V, Q207E, R211K, K238R, V245QC
Eshleman (2005)ESH3124ESH3124AY756846NoneNVP K103KN, V106VMV35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, K122E, D123N, S162C, K173A, Q174K, D177E, T200A, Q207E, R211K, K238R, V245Q, D250E, A272P, K277T, Q278R, E291DC
Seoighe (2007)PL12006_PL120V2EF382066NoneNVP  K20R, E28ED, V35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, K122E, D123G, A129AG, P150PS, K173T, D177E, I178M, T200A, Q207N, R211K, K238R, V245H, D250E, A272Q, T286A, E291D, V292I, I293VC
 PL16306_PL163V2EF382100NoneNVP  E6A, I31R, V35I, E36A, T39E, K122E, A158S, K173A, D177E, G196GR, T200A, Q207A, R211K, K238R, V245Q, A272P, K277R, E291D, I293V, E297KC
Waleria-Aleixo (2008)RES79RES79FJ591853NRTINNRTIM41L, D67N, T69D, L210W, T215Y, K219NK103KN, V106VM, Y181C, G190AE28A, V35T, T39E, E44D, A98S, K122E, D123S, I135T, K173A, Q174K, D177E, V179I, T200A, Q207E, H208Y, R211K, L228H, K238R, V245QC
Hosseinipour (2009)93149314GQ228320D4T, 3TCNVPM41L, M184V, T215YK103NT39E, S48T, V60I, K122V, D123N, I135M, I178M, T200A, K238R, V245MC
 93009300GQ228345D4T, 3TCNVPM184V, T215YY181C, G190AT39E, S48T, K49KR, K122E, D123S, A158S, K173T, V179VI, G196K, T200A, Q207E, R211K, K238R, V245QC
Rey (2009)88w4 TDF, 3TCNVP V179DT39E, S48T, K122E, D123S, K173T, Q174K, T200A, Q207E, F214L, K238R, V245QC
  8w12 TDF, 3TCNVPK65RV179D, G190AT39E, S48T, K122E, D123G, K173T, Q174K, T200A, Q207E, F214L, L228Q, K238R, V245QC
El-Khatib (2010)Pat07410ZA_SAVE2481HQ012352ABC, 3TCEFVM184VY188LV35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, V60I, K122E, D123S, K173T, D177E, I178IM, T200A, Q207E, R211K, K238R, T240K, V245T, S251NC
 Pat11111ZA_SAVE2266JF960561NRTI, AZT, DDINNRTI V106M, V179DP4S, V35T, E36A, T39E, E40D, S48T, K103R, K122E, D123S, I159V, E169D, K173A, Q174K, D177E, G196M, T200A, I202V, Q207E, F214L, K238R, V245Q, E248D, A272P, K275RC
van Zyl (2011)A250A250JN638146D4T, 3TCNVPM184VK103N, Y181YCV35T, T39E, S48T, V60I, K173A, Q174K, D177E, I178L, Q207A, R211K, K238R, V245QC
 A340A340JN638200D4T, 3TCEFVM184VV179D, Y188LV35T, T39E, S48T, K122E, D123N, I135T, K173A, Q174E, D177E, T200A, Q207E, K238R, V245QC
Brehm (2012)25ZA25ZA.48JN601947D4T, 3TCEFV V106ME28A, V35T, E36EA, T39E, S48T, K122E, D123G, I135T, S162C, K173A, Q174K, D177E, T200A, Q207A, R211K, F214L, K238R, V245Q, D250E, A272AP, K277R, T286A, E291D, V292I, I293V, Q334E, R356K, G359T, T377L, K390R, A400T, E404D, E432D, L452K, V466I, S468P, D471E, T477A, H483L, G490E, L491V, E492K, S519N, K527N, K530R, V531I, L533M, A534S, A554N, K558RC
Manasa (2013)RES081RES081KC951691D4T, 3TC, TDFNVPM41L, D67N, K70Q, V75M, M184V, T215FV106A, F227LK20R, V35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, V60I, K102Q, K122E, I135T, K166R, K173A, D177E, I178L, T200A, Q207E, R211K, D218E, K238R, V245E, A272P, K277R, T286A, E291D, V292I, I293VC
Van Zyl (2013)O137652KC424203D4T, 3TCEFVM41L, M184V, T215YA98G, Y188LL34I, V35T, E36A, T39E, V106I, K122E, D123S, I135V, S162Y, K173A, D177Q, V179VI, T200A, Q207D, R211K, D237DE, K238R, V245Q, E248TC
 222411.ZA.GT1589KC423377TDF, 3TCEFV K103KN, V108VI, Y188YFHLK32N, V35K, E36A, T39E, S48T, K122E, D123S, K173A, Q174K, D177E, T200A, Q207DE, R211K, K238R, V245Q, E248TC
 367010.ZA.GT1180KC423021D4T, 3TCEFVM184VV106M, Y188LE6EK, V35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, E53D, K122E, K173A, Q174K, D177E, I178L, V179VI, T200A, Q207E, R211K, F214L, K238R, V245QC
 270208.ZA.GT472KC423632AZT, 3TCEFVM184VY188LV35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, V60I, K122E, D123S, K173T, D177E, I178M, T200A, Q207E, R211K, K238R, T240K, V245TC
 379010.ZA.GT1296KC423128D4T, 3TCEFVM184VK103N, Y188LE28K, V35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, K104R, K122E, I135V, S162C, K173A, Q174K, D177E, T200A, Q207E, R211K, K238R, V245QC
 307107.ZA.GT226KC424055D4T, 3TCNVPM184VK101KPQT, K103N, P225HE6EK, K20R, E28K, K32E, V35T, E36A, T39EK, S48T, K122E, S162C, K173T, D177E, T200A, Q207E, R211K, L228LH, K238R, V245QC
 195010.ZA.GT1454KC423242TDF, 3TCEFV  V35T, E36EA, T39E, S48T, V60I, K122E, D123DGNS, S162C, K173A, Q174H, D177E, I178L, G196E, T200A, Q207D, R211K, K238R, V245TC
 271210.ZA.GT1299KC423131D4T, 3TCEFVM184VK101H, G190ST27S, V35R, T39E, S48T, K122E, D123G, S162C, K173I, Q174K, T200A, Q207E, R211K, K238R, V245QC
 273109.ZA.GT775KC424287D4T, 3TCEFVM184VV106M, Y188LV8I, M16V, E28K, V35T, T39K, S48T, K102E, K122E, D123S, R143K, S162C, K173A, Q174K, D177E, I178L, T200A, Q207E, R211K, F214L, K238R, V245QC
 531411.ZA.EC106KC423716D4T, 3TC, TDFNVP, EFVM41L, K65R, V75I, F116Y, Q151M, M184V, T215YV108VI, G190A, F227LV35T, T39E, V60I, S68G, K103KR, K122E, D123S, I132L, K173A, Q174K, N175Y, D177E, T200E, Q207E, R211RK, F214L, H221Y, K238R, V245QC
Steegen (2014)12ZAKS20712ZAKS207KJ176487D4T, 3TCEFVM184VK103N, V108IK20R, V35T, T39E, K122E, K173A, Q174K, D177E, T200A, Q207E, K238R, V245Q, A272P, K277T, T286A, E291D, V292I, I329L, Q334D, G335DC
 12ZAKS29712ZAKS297KJ176576D4T, 3TCEFVM184VV106M, F227LV35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, V60I, K122E, I132V, K173A, Q174K, D177E, T200A, Q207E, H221Y, K238R, V245E, A272S, T286A, E291D, V292I, E297K, K311R, V314A, D324E, Q334D, G335D, R356K, M357R, G359T, A371V, T377L, K390R, A400I, E404DC
 12ZAKS30812ZAKS308KJ176587D4T, 3TCEFVM184VA98G, K103N, Y188LK20R, V35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, V60I, S105T, K122E, D123GS, I135L, E138A, S162A, K173T, T200A, Q207E, R211K, K238R, D250E, A272S, E291D, V292I, I293V, P294PL, P313Q, D324E, Q334H, G335D, R356K, G359T, T377M, K390R, A400T, E404D, E413DC
Seu (2015)ZM.HIVDRM.64ZM.HIVDRM.64KP995674AZT, 3TCNVPD67N, K70R, M184V, K219QA98G, K101E, G190A, P225HE28K, K32E, V35T, E36A, T39E, E40D, V60I, K103R, K122E, D123S, I135T, K173A, T200A, Q207E, R211K, F214L, K238RC
Skhosana (2015)11ZALS03211ZALS032KM115730D4T, 3TCEFVD67N, K70R, M184V, K219QK101E, V106M, G190AE28K, V35T, T39E, S48T, V60I, K122E, D123G, K173A, Q174K, D177E, T200EK, I202V, Q207V, R211K, F214FL, K238R, V245Q, A272P, K277R, T286A, E291D, Q334D, G335D, K350KR, R356K, M357MK, G359T, T377R, T386TI, K390R, E399D, A400M, E404D, V435AC
Neogi (2016)424713.ZA.GT2856KT593189TDF, 3TCEFVK65R, Y115F, M184IV106M, Y181C, G190A, M230LV8VI, V35T, T39E, S48T, K49R, E53D, T69S, K122E, D123G, S162N, K173T, Q174K, T200A, I202V, Q207E, R211K, K238R, V245QC
 555213.ZA.EC640KT592810TDF, 3TCEFVK65R, T69~K101E, Y181C, G190SK20KR, V35M, T39E, E40ED, S48T, E53D, K122E, D123G, S162F, K173T, Q174K, D177E, V179I, T200A, Q207E, R211K, K238R, V245QC
Steegen (2016)GFGPB044GFGPB044KU127648TDF, 3TC, AZTEFVM41ML, M184V, T215YY188LV35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, V60I, K122E, D123S, T139R, K173A, D177E, I178L, T200A, Q207D, R211K, K238R, V245Q, A272P, T286V, E291D, V292I, I293V, D324E, Q334H, G335D, R356K, G359T, A371V, A376AS, T377IL, I382V, K390R, A400T, E404DC
 GFKZB196GFKZB196KU128100D4T, 3TC, TDFEFVK65R, M184IK103N, Y181C, G190AE6D, K20R, K22R, V35T, E36A, T39E, E40ED, S48T, S68N, W88C, V90I, K101KR, K122E, D123N, I135L, S163T, T165I, K166R, K173T, E194D, T200A, Q207E, R211K, F214L, K238R, V245Q, A272P, K275Q, K277R, Q278N, T286A, E291D, V292I, I293V, Q334H, G335D, R356K, G359T, T369A, T377Q, K390R, A400T, E404D, V435AC
 GFECB007GFECB007KU127692TDF, 3TCEFVK65RV106M, Y181YC, G190AV35T, E36A, T39D, S48T, V60I, K122E, D123E, I142V, K173A, Q174K, D177E, T200A, Q207A, R211K, K238R, V245Q, A272P, E291D, V292I, Q334D, G335D, R356K, M357R, G359T, A360T, T377L, S379A, K390R, A400T, E404DC
 GFKZB118GFKZB118KU127994TDF, 3TCNVPD67DN, K70R, M184V, T215TI, K219EA98G, V108VI, Y181CV35T, T39N, S48T, V60I, K122E, D123G, S162A, K173A, Q174K, D177E, G196E, T200A, Q207E, F214L, L228H, K238R, V245Q, A272S, K277R, T286A, E291D, V292I, I293V, K311R, H315Y, G335S, G359T, A371AV, T377LV, K390R, A400T, E404D, V435AC
 GFGPB054GFGPB054KU127665D4T, 3TC, TDFEFVA62V, K65R, M184VK103N, P225HP4S, V35T, T39E, S48T, S68N, K122E, I135V, S162C, K173T, G196K, T200A, I202V, Q207E, R211K, K238R, V245Q, I257L, A272P, G273R, K275Q, L279I, E291D, V292I, I293V, Q334H, G335D, R356K, G359A, A371AV, I375V, T377Q, S379C, V381I, K390R, A400T, E404NC
 GFWCB030GFWCB030KU127820TDF, 3TCEFVK65R, L74LV, Y115F, M184MVL100I, K103N, Y181YC, G190GAK20KR, V35T, T39D, S48T, K122E, D123N, T165I, E169EA, K173A, Q174KR, D177E, T200A, I202V, Q207K, R211Q, H221HY, K238R, V245QC
 GFKZB271GFKZB271KU128189D4T, 3TC, TDFNVPK65R, M184V, K219EV108I, Y181CV35T, T39E, S48T, V60I, S68G, K122E, I135V, A158S, K173A, Q174K, D177G, T200A, I202V, Q207E, R211K, K238R, V245E, A272P, T286A, E291D, V292I, I293IV, H315S, D324E, G335D, R356K, M357R, G359T, T369V, T377R, K390R, A400TC
Kityo (2017)6604366043KY061412NRTINNRTIM41L, D67DN, V75I, M184V, L210W, T215YK103NE44D, V60I, V118I, K122E, D123N, I132L, K173T, Q174K, N175Y, I178M, G196GE, T200A, K201R, Q207E, R211K, K238RC
 8333583335KY061890NRTINNRTIM41L, D67N, T69D, L74V, V75A, M184V, T215YV108I, Y181CE44D, K101S, V118I, K122E, D123N, I135T, S162D, K173T, Q174K, D177E, I178L, V189I, I195M, T200A, I202V, E203A, Q207D, H208F, L210Y, R211K, H221Y, K238RC
Posada Cespedes (2017)176515.ZA.GT4385KY205595TDF, 3TCEFVM184IV106MV8I, V35T, S48T, V60I, K122E, D123S, I135T, K173A, D177E, T200A, Q207N, R211K, H221Y, Y232H, K238R, V245K, D250EC
 287910.ZA.GT1087KX540551D4T, 3TCEFVM184V, T215FK103N, P225H, M230LV35T, T39E, S48T, E53ED, K82R, A98S, K122E, D123G, K173A, Q174K, D177E, T200A, Q207E, R211K, K238R, V245QC
 547612.ZA.EC471KX541922AZT, 3TCEFVM184VV106M, V179DI31L, V35T, T39E, N57Y, K102R, K103R, K122E, D123G, K173T, Q174K, D177E, T200A, Q207E, R211K, F214L, K238R, V245QC
 118713.ZA.EC911KX542915TDF, 3TCEFVK65R, M184VV106M, Y188LV35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, V60I, S68SN, S105SL, K122E, K173I, Q174K, T200A, Q207D, R211K, K238R, V245EC
 122014.ZA.EC1255KX543868TDF, FTCEFV K103NV35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, K122E, D123N, S162C, K166R, K173AT, Q174K, D177E, T200A, Q207E, R211K, K238R, V245Q, D250EC
 129115.ZA.EC1629 D4T, 3TCEFVM184VY188LV35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, V60I, K122E, D123G, I142V, K173V, Q174K, D177E, T200E, Q207A, K238R, V245QC
 546912.ZA.EC455KX541907D4T, 3TCEFVM184VV106M, V179DK20R, V35T, T39E, S48T, R83K, K122E, D123G, K166R, K173E, Q174R, D177E, I178L, T200A, Q207A, F214L, K238R, V245QC
 136214.ZA.EC1365KX543968TDF, 3TCNVPD67N, K70R, M184V, K219KEK103NV35T, T39N, E42EK, S48T, V60I, K122E, D123S, I135T, S162C, K166KR, K173A, Q174K, D177E, T200A, Q207E, R211Q, K238R, V245Q, D250EC
 201515.ZA.GT4368 D4T, 3TCEFV  K20KR, V35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, K122E, D123G, K173AT, D177E, T200A, Q207D, R211K, K238R, V245Q, E248TC
 478014.ZA.GT3882KY205522TDF, 3TCEFVA62V, K65R, Y115F, M184VV106M, V179E, Y181C, F227LE6EK, V35T, E36A, T39E, W88S, K102Q, K122E, K173A, Q174K, D177E, T200A, Q207E, R211K, K238R, V245QC
 532311.ZA.EC121KX541003NRTINNRTIM184VK103N, V179EP4S, E6EK, V35T, T39E, S48T, E53D, V60I, V118I, K122E, D123N, I135IL, E138A, T200A, Q207E, R211K, F214L, K238RC
 325508.ZA.GT381 D4T, 3TC, ABCEFVQ151QKLM, M184VK103NV35T, E36A, T39E, E53D, K122E, D123S, I135IT, K173A, Q174K, D177E, T200A, Q207E, R211K, F214L, K238R, V245QC
Rhee (2017)5464454644KY386706TDF, FTCEFV  V35T, E36A, T39E, S48T, T84TI, K103KR, K104R, K122E, D123G, A158S, K173A, D177E, G196R, T200A, Q207E, R211K, K238R, V245E, E248D, D250E, I257V, A272P, K277R, T286A, E291D, V292I, I293V, E297EKC